Timeline for Iron Confederacies

 

This is a timeline I compiled while I was writing my book, Iron Confederacies: Southern Railways, Klan Violence and Reconstruction. It tracks railroad reorganizations, the reconstruction plans for southeastern states, and the major outbreaks of Klan violence. The citations are necessarily abbreviated (sorry). You can get the full citations by doing a word search at a decent online library catalog or by referring to the bibliography in my book.

 

Scott Nelson

1836

Dec 21

state commits to Western & Atlantic rr, to connect GA to the west. designed to prevent Memphis & Charleston from going through N. Georgia to Charleston. pushed by GA RR, Central of GA & Monroe rrs.

Phillips, Hist of Trans, 304-7

1845/6

 

rr lines from Augusta and Savanna reach Western & Atlantic terminus (Atlanta)

Phillips, 318.

1847

 

R&D chartered

Golden, "R&D RR system" 1

1851

May

Western & Atlantic rr completed to Chattanooga. first trains run.

UP Phillips, 316.

1851

May

Final survey of NCRR - 223 miles

Trelease, NCRR, 31.

1851

July 11

Formal groundbreaking at NCRR

Trelease, NCRR, 33

1852

Oct

Charlotte & SC railroad completed to Charlotte

Trelease, NCRR, 35

1852

June 23

Tracklaying begins on NCRR

Trelease, NCRR, 36

1856

 

R&D opened

Golden, 1

1856

Jan 29

David F Caldwell of G'boro drives last spike between G'boro & Jamestown

Trelease, NCRR, 37

1856

May

NCRR gives up trying to divert trade to Wilmington. signs agreement to run freight cars through R&G to P'borg (Pbrg rr) and Portsmouth (S&R).

Trelease, NCRR, 107

1856

 

Bank of Fulton established by Alfred Austell and E.W. Holland

EY Clarke, Ill. Atlanta, 38.

1857

 

the "Air Line" started in Atlanta. leader was Mayor Norcross, assisted by James M. Calhoun, L J Gartrell and others.

EY Clarke, Ill. Atlanta, 38.

1859

Nov 25

First train arrives in Spartanburg on the Spartanburg & Union rr

JBO Landrum, Hist of S’burg, 40.

1861

June 12

Lewis E Harvie presents plan for bridging Greensboro-Danville gap to President Davis.

Golden, R&D, 30

1861

Nov 19

Davis sends message to congress recommending support of Gboro-Danville building. Congress ignores it. A minority cites const. prohibitsions to aiding industry & commerce and delays it.

Golden, 31

1861

Feb 7

Congress passes measure

 

1861

before Feb 9

Lewis E Harvies presents case for Gboro-Danville route to NC Convention.

Golden, 31

1862

Jan

ETD Myers, acting chief engineer of va tells Gov. Letcher that he is closing the state engineer's office (will become agent for slave labor for R&D's extension)

Brewer, Confed Negro, 193, n.21

1862

Feb 9

Harvie's lobbying plus Davis' recommendation persuades NC leg to grant a charter to Piedmont rr

Golden, 31

1862

Apr 16

Confederacy enacts the first national draft law, given that there were few volunteers. All men between 18 and 35 are made members of the army for 3 years. This automatically reenlists the one-year volunteers for 2 more years. Later legislation changes the ages to 17 through 50. Union would enact militia act on 17 July 1862. Union draft occurs Aug 4, 1862.

Millet & Maslowski, For the Common Defense, 196-7.

1862

May

details for construction of Piedmont rr from Greensboro to Danville are approved by state & Confed officials.

Brewer, Confed Negro, 87

1862

June 13

Pres & Chief Eng. of R&D authorized to employ 3 div superintendents, 1500 slaves & a requisite # of overseers. Capt. ETD Myers, (engineer & son of QMG Abraham C. Myers (1811-89) will use hiring agents authorized to pay $12 a month for slaves & also to get teams, carts & tools. Also invites bids for parts of the line.

Brewer, Confed Negro, 87

1862

July

Pres & Chief Eng. allowed to pay $15/mo plus rations & medical attn. for slaves.

Brewer, Confed Negro, 87

 

 

 

 

1862

Aug 12

Confed Sec of War George Wythe Randolph asks Pres Jeff Davis to ask Congress for authority to control rrs

gwr, 120

1862

Aug 18

Davis asks Congress for authority to control rrs in his annual message.

gwr 120

1862

Dec

800 "Negroes" bldg the Piedmont line considered insufficient

Brewer, 87

1862

Dec

Confed Congress makes William Morrill Wadley asst. adjutant genl (as colonel) to direct transportation.

gwr 120

1863

Jan-Dec

slaves clear the Piedmont line (Gboro-Danville) to a minimum width of 80 feet

Brewer, 87

1863

Feb-Jun

growing aversion to conscript law in NC. constant appeals to the judiciary for writs of habeas corpus to release those conscripted.

Hamilton, Reconst, 40.

1863

April 4

Lee says rrs necessary for maintenance of defensive lines, asks Davis for "better mode of placing the road in proper condition"

Va rrs in the CW, 136

1863

April 20

Seddon invities officials of rr cos to meet in Richmond w/ Wadley, head of "Railroad Bureau". They ask govt not to take control, ask for mechanics detailed in the army, creation of storehouses, importing skilled European workers, prevention of officer interference

VA rrs in t CW, 136

1863

May 1

BIll from Sen. Louis T. Wigfall of TX, introduced 7 April, asks for Exec authority to regulate rrs and seize offending carriers. Endorsed by Sec. of War Seddon. passed on May 1.

Va rrs in t CW, 137

1863

May

Congress relieves Wadley of position, gives QMG Myers -- opponent of govt control -- authority to administer the law.

Va rrs in t CW, 137

1863

June 30

NC - special session of the Leg called by Gov Vance to deal with financial matters. In weeklong session, the legislature will authorize the Governor to use the militia to enforce the conscript laws.

Hamilton, Reconstr, 49.

1864

Feb

Jeff Davis applies to gov of Va for several hundred slaves to work on Piedmont line

Brewer, 88

1864

Feb 24

NC Standard announces that (Confed) Congress has suspended writ of habeas corpus. Editor WW Holden announces that his paper will be suspended indefinitely (presumably fearing arrest)

Hamilton, Reconst, 59.

1864

Mar

Confederate enrollment in Graham, NC. "There is a great many troops going down on the railroad now…The men from ??? that had substitutes had to go. Some sent up petitions. They had some of the Raleigh Guards there as soon as they were enrolled to march them off under guard. The citizens were very much displeased about it to see true men taken up and sent off in that way."

Mary Jane Allen to JMA, April 1864. John Mebane Allen Papers, SHC.

1864

May

Gubernatorial race in NC - Holden vs. Vance "it was a battle of giants" writes Hamilton.

Hamilton, Reconst, 60

1864

May?

NC leg has a two week session. tries to preserve writ of habeas corpus and an act to "prevent the transportation of citizens by violence beyond the limits of the state" (Hamilton’s words)

Hamilton, Reconst, 62.

1865

early March

Freedman's Bureau organized under War Dept

Morgan, Emancipation, 133

1865

April

Confed Gen'ls surrender

 

1865

April 2

Jefferson Davis, in his pew at St. Paul’s Episcopal Cathedral, gets a note from Robert E. Lee that Richmond must be evacuated.

Eaton, Hist of the Southern Confed, 287.

1865

April 9

Lee surrenders at Appamattox Court House.

Eaton, Hist of the Southern Confed., 287,

1865

Apr 14

Lincoln shot, dies the next day

Foner

1865

May 9

Andrew Johnson’s cabinet considers Stanton’s proposal for reorganizing the South - includes letting mil. governors org. elections for constit. conventions to alters state constitutions to conform to new situation. unanimous agreement, except for whether loyal men white and black be allowed to vote.

Benedict, Fruits of Victory, 12.

1865

May 22-3

President Andrew Johnson meets with WW Holden, RP Dick, Willie Jones, WR Richardson, JHP Russ, WS Mason, Rev. Thomas Skinner and Dr. RJ Powell, telling them he’ll appoint whom they suggest as provisional governor. They choose Holden.

Samuel A Ashe, Hist of NC, v2, 1018-9.

1865

May 29

W.W. Holden appointed provisional governor by Andrew Johnson, "made support of t peace mvmt his litmus test of Unionism"/untrue/. He apponts in May some state board members: Albert Johnson (master machinist of R&G), Robt. P. Dick of G'boro, Nathaniel Boyden of Salisbury, Wm. A Smith of Johnston County & George W. Swepson of Alamance. (tho Dick was a dem who opposed secession, supported afterwards.) In July they choose Nathaniel Boyden as Pres and the state proxy from Davidson County votes for new finance cmte. WC Means, JM Coffin and WA Caldwell replace JU Kirkland, Jed H. Lindsay & EM Holt

Trelease, 270-1, (Ashe eminent, 633-6.) NCRR, 1865, 5.

1865

May 29

Andrew Johnson isses Amnesty Proclamation, reinstating rebel property in exch for oath of allegiance to fed govt. OO Howard (thus stopping his policy of perhaps redistributing) later issues statement attacking "rumor" of land redistribution. FB becomes overseer of free labor.

Morgan, Emancipation, 138

1865

May

2 Companies of the Tenth OH uncover $60k in gold buried at Company Shops. They bribe a captain $2k to conceal the circumstance. Nearly all recovered.

Ashe, Hist of NC, v2, 1018.

1865

May 29

Pres. Johnson issues general amnesty (with exceptions) and appoints WW Holden as provisional governor of NC.

Hamilton, Reconst, 112-3.

1865

June 5

Holden assumes position as Provisional Governor of NC.

Ashe, Hist of NC, v2, 1020.

1865

June 25

Piedmont rr seized by revenue officers of fed govt and held for the use of the United States

Piedmont rr, Annual Report, 1866, 2.

1865

end of July

WW Holden finishes appointments for magistrates, mayors & commissioners.

Hamilton, Reconst, 115.

1865

August

NCRR, R&G and Petersburg RR advertise joint passenger route.

trelease 250

1865

Aug 8

NC’s WW Holden issues a proclamation ordering election of delegates to Constit. Convention for Oct 2.

Hamilton, Reconst, 118.

1865

Sep

Andrew Johnson begins issuing pardons wholesale

Foner, 191

1865

Sep

new policy drafted in white house but called Howard's Circular 15 orders restoration to pardoned owners of all land but that already sold. radically changes Freedman's Bureau from promoter of black landownership.

Foner, 159-61.

1865

Sep. 13

A.S. Buford elected pres of R&D after Gov Pierpont intervenes for him. Buford will hold position for 20 years.

VA during Recon, 238-9. NYT 15 Sep. 1865; VA, house, "Sale of State’s Interest," 43.

1865

Sep 21

Election for NC constitutional convention, to be held Oct 2.

Ashe, Hist of NC, v2, 1020.

1865

Autumn

NCRR pres Nathaniel Boyden buys English iron in NY partly with cotton secured during the War

trelease 218

1865

Autumn

W&W assumes large floating debt, to save road from stockholders

Rich Enq, 13 march 1871

1865

Oct 2

NC Constit Convention begins, Judge Edwin G. Reade chosen as president of the convention. they create military police for counties (on approval of sheriff & magistrate) and they ask pres to remove black troops from the state. they also repudiate war debt. gov races begins shortly. Constit will be rejected on Aug 2 1866.

Hamilton, Reconst, 120, 128, 130-2.

1865

Oct 8

R&D negotiates w/ Sec of Treasury for Piedmont RR to be given to 'the proprietors'. Approved by the President. Req'd bond of indemnity. R&D plans lease

R&D RR Co Rpts, 1865, p. 16-7.

1865

Oct 18

after R&D initiated measures, govt. orders restoration of Piedmont rr to its "rightful owners". doesn't happen until 9 dec.

Piedmont rr, Annual Report, 1866, 9.

1865

Oct

Gov. Francis Pierpont of VA secures election of AS Buford as pres of R&D

grt, 56-7.

1865

Oct

NCRR gets back its railroad east of Raleigh

trelease, 216

1865

Nov 3

NC Genl Assy exempts R&G from rebuiding bridge across Roanoke at Gaston

r&g, 1866, 4

1865

Nov

R&D BofDirs plans to connect to York RiverRR, including York's changing gauge

R&D RR Co Reports, 1865, pp 15-6

1865

Nov 9

Jonathan Worth elected Governor of NC over WW Holden. state will open session on Nov 27 and close in Feb 1866, little action on q of freedmen - assuming that acts might not be valid yet. Worth will take office on Dec 28.

Hamilton, Reconst, 139, 145.

1865

Dec 9

President signs final order of restoration for Piedmont RR.

R&D RR Co Rpts, 1865, p. 16-7. Piedmont Reports, 1867, p.22.

1866

Jan

Pres of Piedmont rr called before cmte of general assembly of NC to inquire into legal proprietorship of Piedmont rr.

Piedmont rr, Annual Report, 1866, 9-10

1866

Feb 1

R&D gets authorization to change Piedmont RR to 5foot gauge of R&D

Piedmont rr, Annual Report, 1866, 10 trelease, 249

1866

Feb 15

Piedmont rr gauge changed to match R&D

Piedmont rr, Annual Report, 1866, 10

1866

Feb 19

Congress votes to expand powers of freedman's bureau, given the Black Codes instituted in the South. Will give relief. Johnson will veto.

Schlesinger, Almanac, 304

1866

Feb 19

Johnson vetoes measure that would expand power of freedmen's bureau. 5 of the southern state legislatures passed resolutions praising him for "courageous defense of constitutional principles". beginning of fatal gamble of relying upon Andrew Johnson, stepping up attacks on military power.

Dan Carter, When the War was Over, 234.

1866

Feb 22

Johnson gives speech (apparently drunk) condemning Stevens & Sumner. erodes support in Congress.

Schlesinger, Almanac, 304

1866

Mar 13

House passes Trumball's more conservative civil rights bill, which avoids the question of black suffrage, but guarantees freed people equal rights under law. most Repubs think Johnson will pass it.

Carter, 236.

1866

Mar 24

Johnson vetoes the conservative Trumball bill, which would've -- if sustained -- marked the end of fed imposed reconstruction.

Carter, 236.

1866

Apr 1

Raleigh & Gaston's bridge at Weldon completed, taking Weldon and Gaston traffic. NC Legis. relieves them of rebuilding Weldon bridge.

R&G Min, 1866, p8

1866

Apr 6

Repub controlled Senate overrides pres. veto w/ narrow margin.

Carter, 236

1866

Apr 9

House rejects Pres. veto by wide margin.

Carter, 236.

1866

Apr 9

Congress enacts Civil Rights bill, granting full citizenship to all persons born in US (but indians, not taxed). Johnson vetoes. Congress passes it over his veto by 1 vote.

Schlesinger, Almanac, 304-5

Congress breaks with Andrew Johnson

 

1866

May

Convention of srn rr pres. meets in Richmond to adopt through tickets & close connections for passengers - NY to New Orleans. Routes: Richmond -Danville-Charlotte, and coastal route via W&W. This closes out R&G

Trelease, 250

1866

May

TN leg distributes state shares (1/3) of ETN & GA among turnpike cos. Richard T. WIlson & Charles M. McGhee begin to buy it up.

stover 114-5

1866

May

Charlotte to Columbia route restored

CCA, 1867, 6

1866

summer

Bridgers goes to Europe to negotiate a bond issue for W&W. he fails.

Rich Enq 13 march 1871

1866

June 16

Congress proposes 14th amendment: full citizenship & voting rights, test oath, union debt good, confed debt bad. Only TN will ratify it (readmitted July).

Schlesinger, Almanac, 306

1866

before July

NC Constit convention votes for state to transfer all of R&G's stock

R&G, 1867, 4

1866

July 1

Congress puts 10% tax on State banknotes.

Schlesinger, Almanac, 306

1866

July 30

Race riots in New Orleans, moving moderates away from Johnson

Schlesinger, Almanac, 306

1866

July

New finance cmte of NCRR gives damning report on previous years, alleging kickbacks, fraud, poor accounting. A kick in the face to Edwin M Holt, former member?

NCRR, 1866, 37-41

1866

July

Backdoor manuevering prevents NC Gov Worth's appointments of directors to NCRR from getting Jo. Turner elected as Pres. Boyden & Strange choose Webb instead of Turner, prompting Worth to remove them the next year, claiming that they didn't attend enough meetings. Holden says that Mordecai & Cameron were arrayed against Turner b/c of battles in 1856 & 58 over state senate (turner won)

Trelease, 272-3

1866

Aug 2

NC vote on the Constitution - rejected by 1982 in a small total vote of 41,122.

Hamilton, Reconst, 176.

1866

Oct

Andrew Johnson instructs states to void state debts incurred during Confederacy after SC & NC do nothing about them. (to be expected, says Foner)

Foner, 193

Before 1866

Oct

Wm Johnston ask R&D for help in building Columbia & Augusta. R&D needs enabling Legis

R&D Minutes, 24 Oct 1866

1866

November

Anti-Johnson majority come into both houses, increasing legislative power.

Schlesinger, Almanac, 306

1866

Dec. 12

R&D doubles stock issue, from $2 mil to $4 mil. Stockholders given double their stock. VA not notified. Buford says its because of the value of the Piedmont road. State will sell interest in 11 July 1870 not realizing that it has twice as much.

Richmond Whig, 4jan1867; Va, del, "Sale of state’s int," 44-8

1866

 

John M Morehead proposes consolidation of Atlantic & NC with NCRR

Brown, State Mvmt, 161

1867

Feb 5

Tom Scott gets Congressional authority to extend his Balt. & Potomac RR from Baltimore to Wash, DC. Starts the building in 1868

Stover, 103-4.

1867

Feb 22

Va Senate approves bill for R&D to create a new mortgage to provide for liabilities

Richmond Whig, 22 Feb 1867

Radical Reconstruction

1867

March 2

1st Reconstruction Act passes over Johnson's veto. Congerss says Southern state govts are provisional (but TN). Five military districts w/ genl who reports to Pres. Readmission reqs 14th amendment. White leaders of rebellion can't vote; poor & landless whites can. Tenure of office act. Pres. can't remove officials appted or approved by cong. Command of Army Act All pres. orders to mil. governors must be approved by Genl. of the Army, US Grant

Schlesinger, Almanac, 307

1867

March 11

Johnson appts. mil. commanders. 20,000 troops sent South.

Schlesinger, Almanac, 307

1867

March 23

2d Reconstruction act. mil. govs can initiate proceedings for constitutional conventions in states; black vote protected & can be elected.

Schlesinger, Almanac, 307-8

1867

March

Mahone gets leg permission to consolidate from Norfolk to Bristol TN. Deadline for stockholders to consol. is March 1868 or leg permission expires.

Repubs & Recon in VA, 150

1867

April

Tourgee pledges loyalty of his supporters to Union League of America, despite reservations about Holden.

Gross, Tourgee, 24

1867

June 14

Tourgee’s The Union Register expires for lack of funds.

Gross, Tourgee, 24.

1867

July 19

3d Reconstruction act. b/c souther voters are staying away from polls, Congress says that majority of 1/2 of voters don't need to ratify constitution; majority of votes can do it.

Schlesinger, 308

Turner year at NCRR (June ‘67- June ‘68)

1867

before June 13

Maj. Gen Daniel E. Sickles (of SC&NC districts) orders "all public conveyances opened to all classes" (Ford’s writing). Yorkville Enq calls it a commandment to "love the nigger as yourself."

Lacy Ford, "One Southern Profile," 91 citing paper of 13 june 1867.

1867

July

William R. Albright enters an asylum.

Senate Outrage Report, 78.

1867

July

Turner voted in by state. Worth ousts Boyden & Strange, replacing them w/ directors who'll vote for Turner. Turner apparently alienates Raleigh alliance, cutting passengers & making schedules that made Raleigh connections difficult.

trelease, 273-4; 250.

1867

Aug 5

Sec. of War Stanton says that mil govs are answerable to Cong, not him. Johnson, outraged, asks for his resignation. Stanton cites Tenure of Office act; Johnson nominates Grant (tho Grant moving to Rads); Stanton transfers stuff to Grant under protest, awaiting congress reconvening in Nov. Johnson dismisses mil. govs & puts in men of his own stamp.

Schlesinger, 308

1867

Fall

Bridgers fails to negotiate bonds of W&W in Boston, NY or Phila. He sends a circular appealing to Balt. acquaintances asking them to take mortgage bonds. after interviews they take 600-700 thousand.

Rich Enq, 13 March 1871

1867

Dec 9-March 7

so-called "Black and Tan" convention in Georgia - lasts almost 4 months. moderates hold the balance of power. Democrats boycott, to prevent a majority of registered voters from ratifying, but law is changed so that only a majority of those voting is required. Joseph E. Brown supports black voting, but defeats reports 10th section, which says that anyone can hold office. Blacks vote down the section, confident that voting will bring right to hold office. Includes relief clause to promise cancellation of debts contracted before June 1865.

Ruth Currie-McDaniel, Carpetbagger of Conscience, 82-3. dates from Wynne, Continuity, 32, 48.

1867

 

B&O ally Orange & Alex wants Mahone's VA&TN section b/c O&A goes as far south as Lynchburg. VA govt owns 60% of VA&TN.

Repubs & Recon in VA, 150-1

1867

 

AS Buford of R&D outlines plan for thru line to Atlanta & Augusta

grt 60

1867/8

Winter

James M. Stockard joins White Brotherhood, later changed to Constit. Union Guards at Company Shops Camp No. 3. Chief was Jno. Trolinger.

Stockard conf., Tourg pap, r 10, i1551.

1868-72

 

Ku Klux Klan's reign of terror in NC

Many Ex People, 154

1868

Jan 6

Maj. General Meade supersedes Maj. General Pope in command of third military district (including GA). Memorial of colored men of 2d Congressional District of GA preferred Pope. They say the Meade ‘assumed arbitrary power’. They blame him for not displacing "from the legislature a class of men who were there in direct violation of the very reconstruction laws he was charged to maintain inviolate." (94)

Tift, et. al, Condition of Affairs in GA, 93-4.

1868

Jan 14

Grant turns over offc of Sec of War to Stanton w/o letting Johnson choose a replacement.

Schlesinger, 309

1868

Jan 14

SC Constitutional Convention held, until 17 March 1868

Proceedings of the Constit Conven of SC

1868

Jan 14

NC Constitutional Convention held, until 17 March 1868

Ashe, Hist of NC, v2, 1064, 1067

1868

Jan

Seaboard & Roanoke and Moncure Robinson's Bay Line of Steamers comes under the same mgmt.

McGuire, "Seaboard Air Line" NCHR 11

1868

Feb 22

Sumner drafts resolution of impeachment (3d such resolution)

Schlesinger, 309

1868

March 5

Articles of impeachment presented against Andrew Johnson.

Ashe, Hist of NC, v2, 1072

1868

March 11

Congress passes the fourth Reconstruction act, specifying that ratification of constitution can be accomplished by a simple majority of votes, regardless of how small a percentage of total registered voters it is. This forces Democrats to be active, and abandon the strategy of ignoring the elections. Black belt Democrats fear that North Georgian whites – who hate black belt planters – will stick with the Repub. party.

Wynne, Continuity of Cotton, 47.

1868

March 11

KKK begins activities in GA, after visit by NB Forrest

Duncan, Entrep, 47

1868

March 16

Johnson's impeachment fails. final acquittal is 28 May.

Schlesinger, 310-1.

1868

Mar 31

George W. Ashburn, white radical from Columbus, constit delegate, & member of Bullock clique, is murdered in his sleep. Meade later moves in to arrest 10, including 2 policemen & union officer. they become heroes in Atlanta.

Wynne, Continuity of Cotton, 52.

1868

after Apr 4

GA. after Democrats first 2 gubernatorial candidates are declared ineligible by Gen. Meade, General John B. Gordon is accepted as candidate. he had been Meade’s opponent on the battlefield. has little pol. experience. suppredt in canvas by Benjamin Hill.

Wynne, Continuity of Cotton, 49.

1868

Apr 20

GA ratification election for new constitution

Wynne, Continuity of Cotton, 45.

1868

Apr 21-23

vote in NC on proposed constitution. Also General Assembly, state & county officers, and representatives.

Ashe, Hist of NC, v2, 1067.

1868

after Apr 28

NC spring election. despite 1st appearance of Klan, Holden elected.

Harris, Holden, 242

1868

May 1

Mahone's legis permission for consolidation expires

R&R in VA, 150.

1868

May 8

First appearance I’ve seen of letterhead for Seaboard Inland Air Line. note from Trace Agent at Portsmouth. "I have written Selma Agt. & taken other steps to ascertain the wherabouts of Mr. Watson's bacon." Previous notes come from the Southern Express Co.

James W? McCarrick? to Hawkins, Williamson & Co, Hawkins Papers, folder 140, SHC

1868

June 16

Atlanta Constitution begins printing. 1st extant issue is 17 June. (started by Col. Carey W. Styles)

Atlanta Constitution. (Clarke, Atlanta Ill., 53.)

1868

June 25

Congress admits 5 southern states, including GA & NC, provided they organize legislatures & ratify 14th amendment

Duncan, Entrepreneur, 51. Ashe, Hist of NC, v2, 1073.

Smith years at NCRR

1868

June 26

W.A. Smith voted in as president, thru WW Holden

 

1868

June 28

Omnibus bill in Congress readmits Georgia into the Union, but repeals the relief section of the constitution.

Wynne, Continuity of Cotton, 53.

1868

June 30-July 1

Gov. Worth hands over the Governor’s office to Holden but writes him, "You have no evidence of your election save the certificate of a major-general of the United States Army. I regard all of you as, in effect, appointees of the military power of the United States, and not as deriving your powers from the consent of the governed. I surrender the office to you under what I deem military duress without stopping to comment on the singular coincidence that the present State government is surrendered, as without legality, to him whose own official sanction but three years ago proclaimed it valid."

Ashe, Hist of NC, v2, 1074.

1868

July

Governor Robert K. Scott inaugurated. Lawyer Robert Shand of Unionville, SC says "black population shortly after that in this county was very … turbulent."

kkk, sc, 968

1868

July

Peter Harden says that Loyal League disbanded this month, though there were apparently some meetings before the presidential election.

Trial of Holden, 423.

1868

July 1

NC legislature meets

Ashe, Hist of NC, 1075.

1868

July 4

Gen Meade, in charge of GA, replaces General Ruger with Governor-elect Rufus Bullock.

Duncan, Entrepren, 51

1868

July 4

WW Holden inaugurated as NC governor.

Harris, Holden, 244.

1868

July 4

Raleigh & Augusta stockholders _apparently_ vote for taking 50,000 in bonds for the Col & Augusta

R&G, 1869, p.3

1868

July 8

Gov Bullock of GA writes Gen Meade of his district saying that there are a number of members of GA legislature who "are not eligible for their seats"

Duncan, Entrepren, 51

1868

after July 4, before the 15th

WW Holden sells Raleigh Standard to Milton S. Littlefield for $15k. Making him one of the richest residents of Raleigh.

Harris, Holden, 247.

1868

July 16

Proclamation of President [Johnson] tells all depts. of the govt. that 14th amendment is ratified. NC (& others) that ratified are entitled to representation in Congress. Canby interprets this as meaning that the provisional govt. has ceased to exist and thus District Cmdr has no judicial functions to determine state Constitutional questions (i.e. whether Holden can appoint jps, magistrates, and mayors). Canby notifies Holden on the 22d.

Canby to Holden, 22 July 1868 in Holden’s Gov papers, NCDAH.

1868

July 20

Sec. of State Seward (or Pres Johnson) announce that 14th amendment has been ratified by 29 states (2/3rds of 37) but there was a doubt about OH & NJ and six of the southern ratifiers were ‘newly-constituted and newly-established bodies avowing themselves to be and acting as legislatures respectively’. Southern Republicans believe that this suggest forcible overturning of governments. Gov. Holden (beginning July 17) tries to organize a militia.

Ashe, Hist of NC, 1079-80.

1868

July 22

Rufus Bullock inaugurated as Gov. of GA

Duncan, Entrep, 52

1868

July 22

Canby writes to Holden saying he (Canby) no longer has power to determine the constitutionality of Holden’s appointments for magistrates. Someone else will have to enforce them.

Canby to Holden, 22 July 1868 in Holden’s Gov papers, NCDAH.

1868

July 23

Democrats hold mass rally (15-20k) under a bush arbor on Alabama street in Atlanta to protest Repub inauguration. Toombs curses Repubs as 'a mass of floating putrescence which rises as it rots and rots as it rises' BH Hill delivers famous bush arbor speech.

Duncan, Entrep, 54-5

1868

July 26

GA state senator Milton Candler of Washington repeats call to expel black legislators, recalls Joseph Brown's speech at Marietta saying that freedmen are not necessarily permitted to hold office.

Duncan, Entrep, 63

1868

July 27

"Wiatt Outlaw" suggested or approved by WW Holden as county commissioner for Graham, NC.

Holden, gov papers, scrap, 27 july 1868.

1868

July 28

NCRR, Ral & Gaston, Charlotte & SC and Columbia & Augusta sign contract to benefit one another in through line

R&G, 1869, 3

1868

July 29

combined senate & house of GA selects Joshua Hill and Horace VM Miller over Bullocks choices -- Joseph E Brown & Foster Blodgett -- for US Senate. this vote shows dems that with moderates they may be able to unseat black legislators.

Duncan, Entrep, 62-3

1868

July 30

Greensboro Patriot announces the Governor’s appointments for municipal officers, includes "Waitt Outlaw"

"Municipal Officers" Gboro Pat, 30 jul 68

1868

probably late July

GA assembly refuses to eject its former Confederate members, as required by the Fourteenth Amendment.

Currie-McDaniel, 94.

1868

July

VA (&MS) denied readmission to Congress for not voting through Reconstruction Acts

Perman, Road, 9.

1868

July

WA Smith becomes president of NCRR, after 1 year on the board.

Trelease, 288

1868

summer

Hon. CM Furman goes to England for SCRR to satisfy English creditors that SCRR's first Mortgage bonds are good in exchange for New Guaranty Bonds.

scrr rpt 1872

1868

Fall or winter

"White Brotherhood" now organized in Alamance into 7 camps. organized for "defeat of the Radical party." no violence yet committed.

WWHolden 3d message, 86.

1868

Aug. 17

"detailed militia of NC" established. raised under Capt. Bosher’s command.

Gboro Patriot, 6 June 1872

1868

Aug 20

General Assembly passes "An act to organize a Militia of North Carolina,"

AG’s Office, General orders 1868-71, NCDAH

1868

after Aug 19

Graham commissioners wait to organize until they get a replacement appointment for Badham.

WA Albright to Holden, gov pap, box 122.

1868

Sep 3

GA House votes to expel all 29 black legislators. (2 senators and 24 representatives) ineligible b/c of race under the constitution and the Georgia Code. Speaker of the House Richard McWhorter (moderate Repub) votes that black legislators can't vote on their eligibility, many white repubs (22 in the house, 3 in the Senate) fail to vote.(perhaps remembering what the Klan did to Ashburn). Bullock says that many Repubs recd 'letters advising them to prepare to meet their Maker, &c., if they dared to vote to keep negroes in their seats. 'Rep. Henry M. Turner asks to walk out of the chamber before House adjourned. "When permission was granted," writes Currie-McDaniel, "he approached the speaker’s desk ‘raising his foot and brushed the dust therefrom (in derision) and retired.’" Currie-McDaniel helsp form in Macon the Civil and Political Rights Assn. JE Bryant is made a member, tho not in a leadership role.

Duncan, Entrep, 63-4 (Currie-McDaniel, 94); (Turner & exact numbers from Currie-McDaniel, 95.)

1868

Sep 12

GA Senate votes to expel its 2 black senators.

Duncan, Entrep, 63-4

1868

Sep

GA gov Bullock petitions for repeal the bill that allowed GA to reenter the Union. He hopes to purge the assembly of former confederates and reinstate black legislators.

Currie-McDaniel, 96.

1868

Sep 19

Camilla Massacre. In S. Georgia white men kill & wound nearly 40 Repubs. Bullock can get no action from Meade of the 3d district, who appears to favor Dems. Schoolteacher Edwin Higbee of Talbotton says of requests for aid 'Tis said the frogs demanded a king and a serpent was sent to them'

Duncan, Entrep, 66-8

1868

after Sep.

Bullock offers rewards for information leading to arrest. Dem press ridicules their ineffectiveness: "omission of Bullock: the murder of Abel who was barbarously and feloniously assassinated by a KU-KLUX by the name of CAIN."

Currie-McDaniel, 96.

1868

Sep

GA's State leg approves aid to Georgia Airline (before or after black legislators are ejected?, check SLAST). They will make other arrangements, then request bonds again in June 1870.

Duncan, Entrep, 109

1868

Sep.

Jacob Alson Long remembers (c. 1915) that the Klan was formed on this month in Alamance County by six men. (Tho’ this is to assert that the union league predated the Klan)

Jacob Alson Long Pprs, SHC.

1868

Sep-Oct

Swepson and Baltimore group vie for Wilm. & Manchester.

Price, 422-3

1868

before Oct 15

AS Buford has obtained charters for Georgia & South Carolina Air Line Railroad. Georgia has loaned the company 12k dollars "and the Legislatures of [NC, SC, & GA] have granted the privilege to the company of holding lands and other property ad infinitum"

Gboro Patriot, 15 Oct. 1868, quoting Danville Times.

1868

Oct. 23

SC’s Wade Hampton speaks out against violence after Gov. Scott assures Hampton’s friend LD Childs that he would allow retaliation.

Zuczek, 60.

1868

Winter

largest importation ever of fertilizer into the South. GA alone consumes 17,000 tons. Appears to lead to large crop in following summer.

Charlotte Observer, 17 June 1869.

1868

Nov 11

AS Buford addresses Atlanta bizmen. While warning that "Atlanta should not allow strangers to control the Air Line" he offers 100k of the 500k needed to build the GA Air Line the first 20 miles north of Atlanta. He then gets city council to renew pledge of 300k in municipal bonds. later in November he gets 240k in bonds from GA leg.

Russell, Atlanta, 133

/cites Nathans, 119-20/

1868

Nov 17

400-500 workers on 3 contractors’ crews at work on Baltimore & Potomac

Ric Dis 17 Nov 1868

1868

November

election for pres. Grant wins. defeated in GA 103k to 57k after massive intimidation. wins in NC w/ 53%, Repubs get 6 of 7 seats in Congress.

Duncan, Entrep, 75; Harris, Holden, 252.

1868

Nov.

Jack Brannock, a black blacksmith is attacked in Alamance county.

Trial of Holden, 1329-2

1868

Nov. 17

In Holden’s annual message he declares that he has procured arms and that the military dept. wants efficiency.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1868

after Nov.

Klan attacks surge in Spartanburg after nov. 1868 election.

kkk, sc, 256

1868

Dec

William R. Albright returns from asylum, where he was since July 1867. Elected as may shortly afterwards.

Senate Outrage Report, 78.

1868

Dec 1

Josiah Turner takes over Raleigh Sentinel

Price, 553

1868

before Dec 10

Buford gives a speech about the Georgia & South Carolina Air Line, calling it "a channel of communication unrivalled in directness, grades, and climate; one by which not only are the trade relations of the great commercial centres of the North with the interior and remote South to be placed under new and most beneficial forms, but also a great interior development to be effected, and a grand trunk throughfare organized for six hundred miles, through the heart of the Piedmont Atlantic slopes - a country the most desireable for reasonable thrift and social happiness that the white man has yet found on this continent."

Greensboro Patriot, 10 Dec 1868

1868

Dec 25

Johnson declares genl amnesty; Jeff Davis' charges in his trial will be dropped 15 feb.

Schlesinger, 312

1868

late Dec

Town elections held in Greensboro. Election for Magistrates awaits Legislature’s dividing the county into townships and setting a date. (Wyatt Outlaw was probably elected to the town commission on this day, after having been appointed by Holden earlier)

Greensboro Patriot, 24 Dec. 1868; "County Matters," 14 Jan. 1869 (NC std, 3 mar 1870)

 

 

 

 

1868

Dec 31

Freedmen’s Bureau (except ed. dept) withdraws from SC.

De Forest, Union Officer, 6.

1869

Jan

William R. Albright comes in as Mayor of Graham around this time David H. Kerr called him a "violent, overbearing man in his manners."

Senate Outrage Report, 78, 340 (quote).

1869

Jan 13

SC votes to lend its name & credit to Greenville & Columbia rr

kkk, v.3, 811.

1869

Jan 30

House passes 15th amendment, sends it to Senate

Edward McPherson, "Pol Hist of t US of A during the period of Recon..."(1871), 399.

1869

Feb

Klan, 75 or 100 strong, raids Graham. Leaves written notices on porch of Mr. Harden and Major Badham telling them if they did not cease trying to prosecute the Klan, they would be "waited on" by the Klan. William R. Albright, as mayor and under the advice of the commissioners, he has a guard for the town. Klan is angry because some of the guard are black men. Holden appoints WR Albright magistrate. He issues warrants, Peter Harden and others.

Senate Outrage Report, 78.

1869

Feb 2

NC Code Commission (created by NC constit of 1868) drafts bill for Genl Assembly to allow gov Holden to select and pay detectives b/c they believe that 'the Executive arm should be strengthened'. designed to suppress the Klan

Massengill, "Detectivs of ww holden" NCHR 62 (oct85)452

1869

before Feb 17

Stockholders visit NCRR. workshop has 150 employees, "80 white and 70 colored" 527 men in all.

NC Std, 17 feb 1869

1869

Feb 19

Gov. Holden of NC given "unlimited power to appoint and pay spies"

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

Feb 24

Morrill Tariff act enacted by Congress

Schlesinger, 312

1869

Feb 26

15th amendment passes both houses: States cant abridge right of citizens on acct of race, color or prev. condition of servitude. Cong. can enforce. passed 1 yr later.

Schlesinger, 312

1869

Feb

construction begins on Georgia Air Line. completed to Gainesville (55 miles) on May 1871.

Russell, 133

1869

before Mar 4

(NC?) Supreme Court determines that state constitution requires that testimony of blacks must be allowed the same as whites.

Greensboro Patriot, 4 Mar. 1869

Grant's Presidency

1869

Mar 4

US Grant inaugurated

McFeely, Grant, 286.

1869

Feb or Mar

Group of 30-40 klansmen ride through the town of Graham, NC about 12 months before Outlaw’s murder. Between 10 and 11 at night.

Trial of Holden, 625.

1869

Between Mar 20 (early spring) and March 30

Joseph Harvey, Caswell Holt, & Squire Alston attacked by kkk in Alamance county, NC

42d cong, 1st sess, rpt 1"Condn. of affairs" 32-4. NC Std, 31 mar 1869.

1869

March 24

Jo Holden & other state employees assault Josiah Turner at the depot in Raleigh.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

March 31

NC state board of ed sells 4000 shares of Wilm & Weldon, 2000 shares of Wilm & Manchester (to be Wilm, Col & Aug) to WT Walters of Baltimore, later of Southern Railway Security Co. Approved by WW Holden on 12 April.

Stover, 73.

1869

March

Governor Holden of NC sends Capt. Bosher’s NC militia to occupy Alamance County.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

 

 

 

 

1869

Apr. 6

attempt to assassinate Josiah Turner, Jr. editor of Raleigh Sentinel, at Sentinel office

George R Kimball to WWH, Holden Pp?, 15 apr1869

1869

Apr 10

Congress allows VA MS & TX to be readmitted, provided they approve the 15th amendment (universal suffrage)

Edward McPherson, "Pol Hist," 408-9.

1869

Apr 10

NC Legislature makes it a felony punishable by 5-10 years to use a deadly weapon.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

Apr 12

"Painting Act" passes in NC - makes wearing a disguise a felony.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

Apr 12

Act in Regard to Townships passes in NC. Establishes that on first Thursday in August (the 5th) that a Board of Trustees will be established, with 2 justices of the Peace and a Clerk. Also a Constable elected. Towns will have 2 jps for each ward - if no wards then 1 jp for each add’l 500 people.

Gboro Patriot, 27 May 1869

1869

Apr 15

School house at Company Shops is burned, destroying all books and furniture.

Gboro Pat, 22 Apr 1869

1869

Apr [15]

Thomas Gray takes John W. Long with him to burn down the school house of Mr. Meder in Co. Shops, a white Northerner who teaches white children during the day and black children at night. The school house is owned by Daniel Worth, a conservative and friend of Josiah Turner.

Holden message, 182. (On Worth see Gbor Pat, 25 Feb 1869)

1869

May 11

Tourgee writes to Holden to tell him that his plan to stop pmt on certain rr bonds approved by the leg. makes sense.

Price, 556.

1869

June 28

Gov. Bullock of GA leases penitentiary to Grant, Alexander and Co. By 1-1-1870 393 convicts working on several rrs. Grant, Alexander & Co pay nothing but promise to treat convicts humanely and pay all expenses in 'receiving, control and management, and discharge'(104)

Duncan, Entrep, 104.

1869

June

NC Gov. Holden sends Capt. Bosher & militia to Jones & Lenoir counties. also Wake.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

July 6

Gubernatorial Election in Va shows triumph of coalition of Washington-connected "True Repubs" and Conservatives. GC Walker ("True Republican" Carpetbagger) defeats incumbent Wells ("Regular Republican" supporter of black suffrage). Voting, mostly along race lines.

Lowe, 148-55, 170-82

1869

July 8

Charlotte, Columbia & Augusta formed from consolidation of Charlote & SC with Columbia & Augusta. (Is friendly to Buford)

Stover, 113-4. (grt 60)

1869

July 10

US army arrives in Milledgeville to prevent rr contractor Alexander of Grant, Alexander & Co 'from making distinction in treatment of white & black convicts'

Duncan, Entrep, 105.

1869

July 9

WA Smith attacks the Republican Party of NC at NCRR annual meeting for giving too much to other rrs.

Trelease, 290

1869

before July 28

Wash and Nelse Morrow, sons of old Jeff Morrow, (black) burn down the barns of William Jones, Franklin Miner, & Jesse Morrow (white). Burning was retaliation for Jones’ eviction of old Jeff Morrow in the winter of 1868/69. Order for eviction had been carried out by Franklin Miner and Jesse Morrow among others. Two men named Morrow -- Jeff and Dan -- would later be hanged by the White Brotherhood.

Hillsborough Recorder, 28 July 1869. For hanging, Tourg pap, r 10 1541; names in r 10 1542.

1869

July

NCRR votes against consolidation w/ A&NC. WA Smith calls it attempt to force freight & passengers "out of their natural channel, or to inferior ports..."

Brown, State Mvmt, 162

1869

Summer

Wm H S Sweet, ed of New Bern Times breaks with WW Holden

Price, 558-9

1869

Aug 5

NC - Township elections for Justices of the Peace & Clerks.

Gboro Patriot, 27 May 1869

1869

late Sep

GC Walker (Conservative-True Repub coalition candidate) inaugurated as Va's Governor. Regular Repubs call it "a Confederate triumph"

Lowe, 179-80.

1869

October

WW Holden threatens to declare Lenoir, Jones, Orange & Chatham in a state of insurrection.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

October 8

Va's General Assembly passes 14th & 15th amendment. The only action they're allowed to take until VA is readmitted.

Lowe, 179

1869

before Oct 13

‘negro meeting’ broken up in Mebanesville, Alamance County by the Klan.

Hillsboro Rec, 13 Oct 1869

1869

before Oct 19

Raleigh & Gaston proposes leasing NCRR, offering 6% on capital stock -- $240,000 per year. Opposed by NC Standard because net earnings last year were $300k. Std says it "is an attack on the whole people of the state" to make NCRR "the great through route for Southern freight and travel" because another road is being built from Raleigh to SC, NCRR will become just a feeder. "The matter once settled in their favor, up will go the freights and passenger tariffs, and a large portion of the people of the State, together with the traveling public, and those who ship freight, will be at the mercy of this iniquitous combination." On 20 Oct., WA Smith gives it his endorsement, saying it will send stock from old standard of 25 on the dollar to 70. says stock has risen to 50 just on the "mere report of such a contract having been made." G’boro Patriot agrees that lease "will create one of the most grinding and oppressive monopolies that has ever existed in this or any other State."

G’boro Patriot, 28 oct 1869 quoting NC Std of 19 Oct?

1869

October 20

WW Holden declares that NC counties lenoir, jones (along Atlantic & NC rr - near Kinston), orange (on NCRR) & chatham (below Orange) are in a state of "insubordination and insurrection".

3d annual msg, Holden papers, NCDA&H. G’boro Patriot, 28 oct 69.

1869

October 30

Holden declares in an unsigned (but later acknowledged) note in the Standard that his declaration’s effect would be ‘to suspend all civil law as it was suspended in 1865.’

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

Nov 11

At NCRR stockholders mtg in Raleigh, Alexander K. McClure (PARR agent) offers $265k per year for lease of NCRR, beating R&G's offer of $240k per year. Mtg ends with indefinite postponement of decision to lease. Richard C. Badger, state proxy, says he was instructed to oppose lease by Holden. Holden confirms this.

Trelease, 311-2

1869

Nov 15

NC leg meets. Repubs split on rr issues

Price, 559

1869

Nov 16

WW Holden asks gen assy to strengthen militia law as "many good citizens are in a constant state of terror". Suggests that it "would not be advisable to employ colored militia only" in Caswell and Alamance. will be Shoffner act of Jan 29 1870.

Harris, Holden, 282.White Terror, 209.

1869

Nov 26

Alonzo Corliss, schoolteacher taken from his house in Alamance county and "brutally beaten and scourged"

3d annual msg, Holden papers, NCDA&H

1869

Nov 26

ETV&G org - consolidation of ETN&VA (chartered '49 open '55) ETN&GA (opened '56)

stover 114

1869

Nov 27

Rutherford Star breaks with Holden

Price, 559

1869

Nov

WA Smith, pres of NCRR, advocates private control of the co to William A. Graham saying "the road has allways been controlled by party and as long as it is, it will be impossible for it to pay the stockholders long at a time"

Trelease, 288

1869

Dec 2

Crippled Quaker teacher Alonzo Corliss of Co. Shops, Alamance County is beaten, whipped and ordered to leave the state within 10 days.

Holden Message, 10-11.

1869

Dec 6

President Grant recommends that Congress reconvene the GA legislature with its original members and require them to take the Reconstruction oaths. designed to reinstate ousted black members and temporarily restore military rule. This was the course desired by Bullock and opposed by Centrist Republicans.

Duncan, Entrep, 93.

1869

Dec 6-17

WA Smith battles with Repubs in NC Gen Assy. he claims it lacks men of property & character. State Senator Galloway of Wilmington offers resolution asking Gov. to remove Smith as director, as he has gone over to the enemy.

Trelease, 290

1869

Dec 16

Holden gives a special message, asking for amendments to the militia law.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

Dec 16

TM Shoffner, Repub Senator from Alamance County, introduces bill for stronger militia.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

Dec 16

amendment to Shoffner bill proposed in HR that military should be subordinate to civil power, uses lang of constitution. amendment voted down.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1869

Dec 22

GA: Grant signs legislation recalling 1868 legislature & purged of those who can’t take the test oath or show removal of disability. state has to ratify 15th amendment & cannot exclude any race. Troops can be dispatched if Gov. requests them. Bullock will convene on 9 Jan 1870.

Currie-McDaniel, 107.

1869

~Dec. 25

Martin G. Blalock, lame Confederate soldier who was employed to run a grog shop in Hillsboro, is killed by two men. men are later hanged before 6 Apr. 1870.

Superior Ct Records, Tourg pap, r 10 I1578; Hillsboro Recorder, 6 apr. 1870

1869?

 

Buford threatens NCRR w/ parallel line to Charlotte

grt 60

1869

 

NCRR rebuffs R&G offer to lease the road for $240,000 per year

Stover, 110

1869

 

Atlanta & Richmond Air-Line chartered in NC, SC & GA. AS Buford is pres. Const. begins immediately, finishes Sep 1873

Stover, 112-3.

1870

about Jan 1

indignation meeting held in Alamance, to protest Shoffner’s bill. Chaired by James E. Boyd, afterwards shown to be in the Klan.

Trial of Holden, 421.

1870

Jan 9

Gov. Bullock reconvenes legislature.

Currie-McDaniel, 107.

1870

Jan 10

Gov Bullock asks Grant to have onsite cmdr Meade replaced with General Terry. approved by Grant.

Duncan, Entrep, 95.

1870

Jan 26

US Grant signs bill admitting Virginia into Congress.

Lowe, 181

1870

Jan 29

NC gen assy passes "An Act to Secure the Better Protection of Life and Property", known as Shoffner Act. allows Holden to declare a county in state of insurrection & call upon state militia if civil authorities can't protect citizens.

Massengill, 475.

1870

Jan

Memphis Appeal is incorporated as Memphis Appeal Publishing Co, with 30 stockholders. MC Gallaway as ???. Keating & White as co-editors.

Baker, Memphis Comm App, 123-4

1870

Feb 1

After purge of GA's General Assembly, Bullock now has working majority in both houses.

Duncan, Entrep, 96.

1870

Feb 5

Freight contract signed among NCRR, R&G, Seaboard & Roanoke, BSP Co and Old Dominion Steamship Co.

ABA, 27 July 1872

1870

before Feb 24

15th amendment ratified. Last state is Georgia. Conservative Gboro Patriot says "we do not recollect to have heard or seen, any one person or paper, who rejoices at the forcing of the amendment into the constitution, in the way it has been accomplished, who is not a northern man by birth, and a bitter Radical in politics..." Elizabeth North Carolinian says GA has the honor of ‘capping the edifice of liberty with granite of suffrage.’

24 feb 1869

1870

Feb 27

Wyatt Outlaw hung by a "gang of about one hundred" in the courthouse square in Graham, NC on Saturday night. (sunday morning is the 27th)

3d annual msg, Holden papers, NCDA&H; quote from Hayman, below.

1870

Feb. 28

"the next day, the holy Sabbath, the people passed by the hanging body on their way to church paying no attention to it. Worshipped God with great devotion. The minister was so absorbed in contemplating the sacrifice on Calvary that he could not think of the poor soul that had left for its Maker the night before. Along in the afternoon, after the wrship was concluded, two or three men were found with nerve and pluck enough (for the Ku Klux had threatened the same fate to any one who dared to do it) to cut the poor man down."

Tourgee scrapbook, speech of Tourgee [1872?]

1870

winter

SC votes on consolidation of Greenville and Columbia rr with Blue Ridge rr. Conservative leg. Joel Foster of Spartanburg says there was corruption involved. bill originally provides that the rr will have exclusive rights to mine phosphates in SC.

kkk, sc, 811, 828

1870

~March 1

a company (60-70) of federal troops arrives in Graham. They do not leave until the militia leaves.

Trial of Holden, 706.

1870

March 3

Col. SB Hayman of Raleigh and his detachment sent into Graham. finds loyal people "in a high state of excitement owing to recent and threatened outrages"

Hayman to Holden, Holden pp?, 4mar1870

1870

March 4-7

WW Holden commissions Pride Jones (Hillsborough, Orange County democrat) to attempt to end Klan operations in Orange county. Holden gives him a captains commision in the 45th regt. Orange Militia. Holden says that if they disband & commit no further offenses, he won't hold them responsible. Jones responds that he can have influence in Alamance, but that troops will only inflame Alamance.

KKK hearings, NC, 1-8

1870

March 7

WW Holden declares NC county of Alamance in a state of "insubordination and insurrection" and sends 40 federal troops.

3d annual msg, Holden papers, NCDA&H; Harris, Holden, 284.

1870

March 7

Judge Tourgee refuses to hold court.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Mar 8

Governor’s message to the VA Genl Assy says that state’s interest in stock should be sold.

Va, house, "Sale of State’s Interest", 48-9.

1870

Mar 10

WW Holden sends an appeal to President Grant for aid "in repressing these outrages and in restoring peace and good order"

Harris, Holden, 284

1870

Mar 14

Holden writes to members of Congress: ‘I have called on the President for aid, but he is restricted by the right of the writ of habeas corpus - We want military tribunals by which assassins and murders can be summarily tried and shot. We can not have these tribunals unless the President is authorized to suspend the habeas corpus in certain localities.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Mar 17

Holden writes to US senator Abbot "We have Federal troops, but we want the power to act. Is it possible the government will abandon the loyal people, to be whipped and hanged. the habeas corpus should be at once suspended.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

before Mar 18

WA Smith takes over as editor of NC Standard

Rutherford Star, 19 mar 1870.

1870

before Mar 18. after mar 7?

Canby sends 2 cos. of troops to insurrectionary districts of NC. remains until the end of April.

NC Standard, 21mar1870; Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Spring

Conservative lawyer Robert W. Shand says that it stops being quiet in Unionville. reason: black and white legislators return from Columbia and "commenced organizing their Union Leagues"

kkk, sc, 969

1870

Mar 19

Richmond: Ellyson’s police arrested & disarmed by opposition police. balance took refuge in station house at noon.

NC Standard, 21mar1870

1870

Mar 25

rr lobbying strong "The following gentlemen were on the floor of the House to day - many in violation of the rules: Ex-Governor Fletcher; Generals Terry, Craig and Dodge; Colonels Cass and Able; Messrs. Ames and Crates and Ex-Secretary Upsher.

NC Std 26 mar 1870

1870

Mar 28

In Congress, Mr. McKenzie introduced bill to incorp. the Southern Transcontinental RR.

NC Std, 29 mar 1870

1870

before April

Junius Morgan, JP Morgan & Drexel agree to join forces. JP adds condition that he needs 15 month vacation. Drexel, Morgan will open its doors on 1 July 1871.

H. of Morg, 34.

1870

Apr 7

Pennsylvania Corporation organized. first pure holding co. authorized to hold stocks of other roads. Tom Scott is Pres.

JET, 150; Dillavou,"Desi. Lgl. Chgs" Acctg Rv 44; "Org & Charter SRSC"p19.

1870

Apr 13

Senator Abbot makes a speech advocating Drake’s amendment (to allow pres to suspend habeas corpus?)

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

May 9

announcement, supposedly from Alderman of Merchants of the Berlin Bourse, suggesting that unsound American bonds may be marketed soon. Avoid bonds not guaranteed by US govt. Perhaps re Jay Cooke's Northern Pacific.

Adler, 76

1870

May 31

1st enforcement act passed by Congress

Coulter, S During Recon, 170

1870

May-Oct

Governor Scott sends rifles to militias, some with black members, in the months before the October election.

kkk, sc, 466, 468

1870

June

Amos T. Akerman joins US Grant’s cabinet.

Currie-McDaniel, 112.

1870

June

Grand jury convenes in Alamance. Superior court is always held in June. Foreman is James G. Moore. He doesn’t call for investigation into murder of Outlaw or Puryear or for whipping of Corliss. Tells the black member from Graham that he must request a hearing and suggest witnesses if it is to be done.

Trial of Holden, 654-6.

1870

before June 16?

first 20 miles of Georgia Air Line is apparently completed, though perhaps not fully tracked.

Duncan, Entrep, 109.

1870

first week of June

meetings in the Governor’s office. agreed that a regular military force be raised under control of the Gov. someone swears that John Poll suggests a desperado named McLindsay who would raise a co that ‘would give Governor Holden no trouble, for that if any of the men arrested by him undertook any resistance, he would kill them or they would be lost never to be heard of again.’ Suggestion made to follow example of Clayton, gov of Arkansas where military courts had tried & executed men. WC Clarke was commissioned Colonel of 1st Regt. NC State troops & went to Washington to procure an outfit for his regt.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

June 11

Gov. threatens in the Standard "The Governor does not fear these fiends in human shape. If he is even personal menaced, his friends will resent it and punish the man or the men who may do it - if he is slain, or even wounded, it is already determined that leading Democrats and Conservatives who might be named will be instantly put to death. The Governor’s mind is made up.’

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

June 12

Census being taken in Alamance County, NC

US Census

1870

June 16

Gov. Bullock 'reluctantly' endorses 240k of Georgia Air Line bonds, saying that law has not been 'fully complied with' in the construction of these first 20 miles.

Duncan, Entrep, 109

1870

June 17

Mahone's consolidation passes both houses in VA.

VA during Recon, 248-9.

1870

before June 21

Kirk, appted by Holden as col. of 2d regt., has ad printed for recruits. asks for union men in general a ‘soldiers of the NC 2nd and 3rd Federal troops’ (whom Dems call bushwhackers under Kirk). Dems say that sworn testimony calls him a ‘desperate, merciless, criminal, violent, cruel man, a plunderer, guilty of many outrageous deeds and murders.’

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

June 21

Col. Kirk ordered to rendezvous with his regiment at Morganton.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

June 28

Georgia Air-Line railroad and the Air-Line railroad in South Carolina consolidate under the name Atlanta and Richmond Air-Line Railway Company. Will have president and 12 directors. President is AS Buford. General A. Austell is first vp. RY McAden of Charlotte is second vp. "The clouds which hovered over this important work have dissipated, a contract having been made with an experienced and energetic contracor of New York, Mr. P.P. Dickinson, to complete the whole line from Charlotte to Atlanta in two years."

Richmond Dispatch 4 July 1870.

1870

summer

work on air line (Charlotte to Gainesville GA) begun from Charlotte to Spartanburg.

Carolina Spartan 1 June 1871

1870

July

Georgia readmitted again

Currie-McDaniel, 112.

1870

July 8

Holden declares Caswell county in a state of insurreciton.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 8

Col. Kirk is ordered to Company Shops, NC

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 11

State Retrenchment: Va assembly allows Va rrs to buy their own stock held in the Va treasury in exchange for equivalent in State bonds. 3/5th of R&D is up for grabs. (July was date for R&D. Overall leg was June & July 1870 & March 1871)

Harrison, 93-4 (Stover, 105)

1870

July 11

Pres & BoD of R&D authorize any "contract it may deem judicious in promoting a connection business"

agreemt btw r&d & Atl & Charlotte air-line (1881), 1-2

1870

July 12

James E. Boyd of Alamance arrested by Col. Bergen.

kkk papers, Duke, Boyd testimony

1870

July 13

Col. Kirk ordered to Yanceyville, Caswell County, NC.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 13

night. attempt made to assassinate Mrs. Turner.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 15

Adolphus G. Moore is arrested at the house of Thomas M. Holt, 2 miles east of Graham.

Trial of Holden, 627.

1870

July 15

arrest of citizens in Alamance & Caswell county.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 16

Four of the men arrested by Holden sue out writs of habeas corpus. Chief Justice Pearson issues the writs.

H. Exec. Doc, 41 Cong 3d sess, #16, 10 (Grant msg). Daily Std, 18 Jul 1870; Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 16

Kirk refuses to obey writs. returned with message ‘such things had played out’

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 17

Holden writes to Kirk, suggesting more arrests - lists to be furnished to the Judge Advocate. court to assemble Monday 25 July. allegedly letter talks about keeping votes.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 18

Chief Justice Pearson writes Holden asking if Kirk’s arrests & imprisonments were under his orders. Next day, Holden says Kirk is his subordinate officer acting under his orders. Pearson declares that "the power of the Judiciary is exhausted."

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 20

Holden asks US Grant for a regiment of Federal troops to aid him.

Grant msg, 10

1870

before July 28

Pearson apparently concedes that Holden can repress insurrection, but that he must try Klan suspects in open court.

"Judge Pearson’s Decision" Gboro Pat, 28 July 1870.

1870

July 23

Holden, as head of state exec. cmte telegraphs John Forney saying that Pearson "substantially sustains the state Government and refuses to interfere."

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

July 28

Holden writes to Kirk saying that ‘on account of the pending election, to postpone the Court Martial until the 8th August.’

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Aug 3

Holden writes to Kirk asking for names to add to a military court.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Aug 5

Josiah Turner, Jr, arrested in Orange county (tho’ Orange not in insurrection) carried to Kirk at Yanceyville and then Alamance ‘and confined in a loathsome dungeon with a negro felon condemned to death.’

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Aug 6

George W Brooks, Judge of Fed court for District of NC, on petition of Turner, issues writ of habeas corpus to Kirk.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Aug 7

Holden telegraphs Grant, saying he’ll hold the troops unless Grant commnads army to demand them. referred to Atty Gen. Akerman

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Aug 8

Akerman reports "I don’t see how the US district Judge can refuse to issue the writ if the prisoner makes out a case for it under habeas corpus act of 1867. I advise that the State authorities yield to the United State Judiciary.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Aug 11

Gov. Holden orders Col. Kirk to parolehis prisoners.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Aug 15

John Neathery goes to home of Chief Justice in Richmond Hill to have him return.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Aug 18

Chief Justice ready to receive Col Kirk; he discharges them at 10 am on Aug 19. Judge Brooks already discharging them at Salisbury.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Aug 19

Klan suspects in Alamance are brought before Judge Brooks at Salisbury, where they are released.

Trial of Holden, 704.

1870

Aug 22-30

Testimony of Alamance Klansmen taken "at chambers, Raleigh...before Chief Justice Pearson and Justice Dick"

Holden, 3d annl msg, 91 ff

1870

Sep

NY Cotton Exchange opens its doors

Matthew B. Hammond, The Cotton Industry, 301; Rothstein, says 1870 Lipartito says 1871

1870

Sep 6

resolution introduced in GA house to return all convicts to a central penitentiary under state control

Taylor "origin" GHQ 26, 115

1870

Sep 22

Wm. R. Howle begins work on a railroad construction contract in Chatham county (south of Alamance & Orange). for railroad from Raleigh to Cheraw, SC. /must be Raleigh & Augusta./

kkk hearings, NC, 51,69

1870

Oct 24

Bullock allowed to lease W&A

?

1870

Oct/Nov

Many Klan outrages in Spartanburg area. covered in Klan report. earlier surge after nov 1868 election.

kkk hearings, sc, 104-5

1870

3? Nov.

gubernatorial election in NC between Manning & WW Holden.

kkk hearings, NC, 51

1870

before Nov

Postmaster at Co. Shops compelled to leave town. armed men visit his house.

3d annual msg, Holden papers, NCDA&H

1870

Dec

Southern Security group (Scott, Simon Cameron, HB Plant, Wm T Walters), before organizing, get lease of Western and Atlantic from GA

Stover, 104.

1870

Dec

Josiah Turner gives speech before election "with regard to negroes" in Alamance.

"Condition of Affairs," 83.

1870

Dec 3

Thomas Black aka Thomas Rountree shot & throat cut.

Ford, "One Southern Profile," 110. cites kkk, sc, 1544.

1870

Dec 9

Judiciary Cmte of NC House of Representatives reports, calling for the impeachment of Holden.

Trial of Holden, 1

1870

Dec 15

cmte of HR appears at bar of Senate of NC, impeaching Gov. Holden.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1870

Dec 20-22

GA elections for legislature

Duncan, Entrep, 131

1870

Dec 23

Impeachment trial begins for WW Holden

Trial of Holden, 18-9.

1870

Dec 24

Special election held in Alamance. Conservatives claim that people have to vote in their districts, not at the court house where most freed men voted. Freed men who arrived were turned away and couldn’t make it back in time to vote.

Senate Outrage Report, 38.

1870

Dec 25

Deadline for bids for W&A Railroad.

Duncan, Entrep, 116.

1870

Dec 26

Christmas meeting in Kimball house between Brown group and Hill group.

 

1870

Dec 27

After letting it be known that he wanted a consolidated bid, Bullock awards bid to consolidation of Brown group and Hill group.

Duncan, Entrep, 116.

1871

Jan 12

Message from Pres. Grant says there have been many ‘rebel outrages’ in NC from 1867 to 1870

NY Daily Tribune, 3 Feb 1880.

1871

Jan18

PRR finance cmte recommends that PRR gives up leases & rr stock for lines west of PA to PA Company in exchange for 67% of preferred stock in the company "to secure the greatest possible efficiency in the management and control of the lines of railway...west of Pittsburgh" approved Feb 1.

PRR, BoD minutes, v5, 440-2.

1871

Feb 1

PRR buys into PA Corporation

JET, 150.

1871

Feb 28

2d Enforcement act passed in Congress

Coulter, S During Recon, 170

1871

March 1

Governor Scott of SC has conference w/ leading democrats, including Gabriel Cannon & WK Easley, about stopping the violence in SC. They recommend disarming the black militia.

kkk, SC, 106-7

1871

March (1)

VA gov signs charter of Wash & Richmond RR, which threatens Alex. & Fredericksburg. Will have control by late fall of 1871.

Stover, 105

1871

March 6

Carnegie sells J Edgar Thomson's stock in Union Pacific, after having it placed in trust to him as a way of extending PARR empire west. First big difference btw Scott & Carnegie.

Wall, Carnegie, 286-9.

1871

March 6

murder of black militia leader Jim Williams aka Jim Rainey in York County, SC

Lacy Ford, "One Southern Profile," ii-iii, 112; kkk, sc, 1365

 

 

 

 

1871

before March 16

"Governor Scott, of South Carolina, after conference with leading citizens of Chester and York counties, has disarmed the negro militia and all is quiet"

Jrnl of Commerce 16 mar 1871. in USGrant papers, m9793, reel 31

1871

Mar 16

US senate removes Sumner from Chairmanship of Cmte of Foreign Relations, replaced by Cameron. apparently b/c Sumner opposes Grant's policy on San Domingo. claim is made by Pitt Commercial

Grant Papers, p. 165 reel 31. p 25.

1871

Mar 18

"Georgia negroes memorialize the Senate, saying they are denied redress by the courts, and mobbed for claiming their rights."

NYDaily Tribune, 3 Feb 1880.

1871

March 18

Closing arguments proceeding for the trial of Holden.

Trial of Holden, 2367.

1871

Mar 18

In NC Senate, "Republican Senators are unseated till the rebels have two-thirds, and then the Governor is removed for doing his duty.The ‘Strong Man’ [Pres. Grant] has nothing to say."

NY Daily Tribune, 3 Feb. 1880.

1871

before March 20

Klansmen circulate report that Chester Union League was planning an attack Fort Mills to butcher white inhabitants

kkk, sc, 38

1871

March 22

SRSecCo organized as Overland Contract Co., 1st important pure holding Co

grt 61. Stover 104. "org & charter of SRSC",14.

1871

March 22

Senate of NC finds Holden guilty of high crimes and misdemeanors, removes him from office & declares him as disqualified to hold any office of honor, trust or profit under state of NC.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1871

March

SC gives up first lien on Greenville & Columbia RR (to the mtns) so that a new bond issue can be negotiated.

Summers, 44.

1871

Mar 31

Bill brought by AS Wallace before US House of Rep to aid Air Line from Charlotte to Atlanta via Spartanburg & Greenville $8k per mile completed. referred to cmte on rwys & canals.

Carolina Spartan, 30 mar 71.

1871

April 5

First meeting of Overland Contract Co. in NY., name changed to SRSC

"org & charter of SRSC", 12-3.

1871

Apr 5

Richmond Whig advocates annexing Santo Domingo & making Frederick Douglass the first territorial governor so that "the freedmen of the South will have a safe and sure haven to fly to from their persecutors." this will allow them to escape kkk outrages, b/c prosecution isnt working

R Whig, 5 apr 1871. in Grant Papers, reel 31.

1871

Apr 6

NC leg (dem controlled) passes law preventing Gov. from making rr appts. probably unconstitutional.

Price, 584-6

1871

Apr 13

stockholder of Shenadoah Valley RR (Sheperdstown WV to VA&TN rr) elect TA Scott as President - sees it as link btw SRSC & PARR. New Orleans to NY route.

Lambie, Mine to Mkt, 11.

1871

before Apr 13

kkk bill passes the house, 118-91. protection of property, against conspiracy, pres. can suspend habeas corpus

Car Spartan, 13 apr 1871

1871

Apr 20

3d enforcement act (called the Ku-Klux Act) passed. Allows Grant to declare martial law in 9 counties in upper SC. Trials later held in Raleigh, Columbia, Charleston & Oxford MS, only 10% convicted, many sent to state pen in Albany, NY. all released by 1873. (Grant doesn’t act til Oct)

Coulter, S During Recon, 170 (Ford, "One Southern Profile" 117)

1871

Apr 30, 3am

kkk attacks Wm. R. Howle's rr contract in Chatham county, NC

kkk cmte, nc, 51, 65.

1871

April 30

Richmond & Atlanta air line completed from Atlanta to Gainesville.

Carolina Spartan, 1 June 1871.

1871

April

SC Klansmen begin whipping rr workers on Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line rr, to force them to stop working

kkk cmte, v3, 27-9

1871

May?

On Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line, large proportion of the ~70 miles between Charlotte and Spartanburg completed.

Carolina Spartan 1 June 1871

1871

May?

building on Line between Spartanburg and Greenville. Begun in March?

Carolina Spartan, 1 June 1871.

1871

May 5

R&D enters into contract w/ Tom Scott, trustee of SRSC. Scott will furnish state bonds for the stock buyback from the state and he will get R&D stock.

Harrison, 94

1871

May 5

SRSC has a 2d mtg w/ more than 3/4 of stockholders present. Votes to increase capital stock.

"org & charter of SRSC", 12-3.

1871

May 6

newspapers respond, some negatively, to Grant's proclamation about the use of force in the South to put down kkk outrages. (detroit free press calls them the imaginary Ku-Klux organizations" NYtrib supports him in this only. St Louis Repub says GA should have defended itself)

Grant papers, reel 31

1871

May 9-12

Tax Payers’ Convention in SC

kkk, sc, 474ff

1871

May 31

Enforcement Act of 1871 passed.

Lou Williams "SC KKK" CWH 39, p.51.

1871

June

Sutherlin of R&D, representing Penn Central, tries to buy Raleigh and Gaston to hem in NCRR and force NCRR to sell or lease.

ABA, Johnston letter

1871

June

WA Smith takes directors and others on a junket, called an inspection of the road. Smith's invitation to impt stockholder WA Caldwell has handwritten "Cold ham -- pickles -- crackers & whiskey"

Trelease, 288

1871

June 5

KKK joint select cmte begins hearings in DC to investigate North Carolina outrages

KKK hearings, NC

1871

July 1

Drexel, Morgan opens its doors

H. of Morg, 32

1871

July

Pres of SCRR goes to London to facilitate exchange of bonds, as agents can't get London bondholders to part with their New Guaranty bonds for the first mortgage bonds.

scrr ann rpt 1872

1871

July

National Bank of Spartanburg organized. George Cofield made cashier. Gabriel Cannon is first president.

Hist of S’burg, 544, 439.

1871

July 31

Ben Hill's Alumni Society Speech

 

1871

Aug 01

Penn RR is buying up stock of Char, Col & Augusta

ABA, Johnston letter

1871

late Aug

"Pennsylvania Co." (for PARR w. of Pittsburgh) makes arrangements w/ Jeffersonville, Madison & Indianapolis rr, after purchasing 3/4 of stock. gives PA co control of rr bridges across the OH river & thus of all thru lines over OH to South and Southwest.

CFC, 2 Sep 1871

1871

Aug 31

VA sells all state-owned rr stock, inc 24k Danville shares. Passes to SRSC w/ approval of R&D board.

grt 61

 

 

 

 

1871

Aug 31

Tom Scott reaches final settlement with R&D getting the formerly state-owned stock & sealing control.

Stover, 108

1871

Sep 1

US Grant unexpectedly abandons his summer retreat in Long Branch, meets with his Cabinet about what he’s heard about Klan activity in SC.

Trelease, White Terror, 400

 

 

 

 

1871

September 11

R&D gets 30 yr lease of NCRR for $260,000 / year. (in night mtg says Stover)

grt 60, Stover, 111

1871

September 11

Buford seeks NCRR gauge change from 5' to std of 4'8" (not legal till 1875)

grt 60 (Stover 112)

1871

Sep

Klan trials in US Circuit court in Raleigh begin. (just for Rutherfordton area?)

Trelease, white terr, 400

1871

before October

John Saluda, who shot Samuel Stewart, is working "up on the Air Line Railroad, as a guard over the chain-gang."

KKK hearings, GA, 593

1871

Oct 7

President WA Smith of NCRR alludes to lease of NCRR by PA rr

CFC, 7 Oct 1871, 467.

1871

Oct 12

Grant issues proclamation calling for an end to violence by "unlawful combinations and conspiracies"

Trelease, White Terr, 403

1871

Oct 19

Mass arrests begin in upcountry SC. by end of yr 195 arrested, 500 volutarily surrender & give depositions, about 100 have fled county.

Trelease, White Terr, 403-4

1871

Oct 21

NC’s Governor Tod R. Caldwell (replacing Holden) authorizes Judge Albion Tourgee of the 7th district to hold a special term of the Superior court in Person (& presumably other counties) beginning 20 Nov. 1871.

Tourgee papers, reel 10, I1538.

1871

Oct 23

Bullock of GA pens his resignation, effective Oct. 30.

Duncan, Bullock, 135

1871

Oct. 27

Tourgee begins receiving testimony in Alamance county in reference to Klan violence. PR Harden, Justice of the Peace takes testimony from Polly Gappins today. Her house was burned by the klan.

Tourg papers, r 10 i1539

1871

Nov 1

Gov Bullock of GA refuses to call legis into session, b/c of Klan activity

Duncan, Bullock, 134

1871

Nov 20

Judge Tourgee authorized to begin holding a special term of the Superior court in Person county, apparently to deal with klan violence.

Tourgee papers, r 10 i1538

1871

before Dec 11

Grant's annual message to Congress recommends that it pass a general amnesty bill..

Dorris, Pardon & Amnesty, 372. in Matt Shepherd, "Southern Phoenix" (my possession)

1871

Dec 11

Bill introduced in House for Amnesty of Southern Confederates. passed in May 23,1872

Dorris, 372, cited in Shepherd, above.

1871

Dec 17

James M. Stockard confesses to AW Tourgee of 7th district of Superior court concerning the White Brotherhood and the hanging of Wyatt Outlaw.

Stockard conf, Tourg pap, r 10, i1551

1871

Dec

PARR had 11756 shares of SRSC costing 587,800 ($50 a share)

PARR, sec, Minbks BoD, v6, 232-3

1871

 

SCRR purchases controlling interest in Macon & Augusta and Greenville & Columbia to face the "danger" of "the joint project of ambitious corporations and superabundant capital."

scrr ann rpt 1872

1871

 

B&O and Mahone unite against SRSC "bucktails"

V Conserv, 155.

 

 

 

 

 

1872

Jan 5

Postmaster-General asks for telegraphs to be nationalized as they are in England

Grant papers, scrapbk, reel 31

1872

February 13

SCRR Stockholders receive notice of an offer for lease of SCRR with guarantee of 4% return per year. b/c no official offer is made the question is tabled.

scrr ann rpt 1872

1872

February 14

SCRR stockholders announce that a "large number of shares" have been purchased by "New York and Georgia capitalists"

scrr ann rpt 1872 vi

1872

Feb

Tom Scott becomes pres. of TX & Pacific, failing subsidy finally sells to Jay Gould in 1880

stover 118

1872

Feb-Apr

South[ern] Improvement Co. seeks to close out competitors by doubling the price to ship crude from PA to NY (related to SRSC?)

Prize, 40-1.

1872

March

SRSC leases Memphis & Charleston, highly touted west connexion

grt 69-70

1872

May

R&D freight yard workers strike (black?)

Alrutheus Ambush Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Va, 120; cited in Morgan, Emancipation, 202

1872

May 17

John Scott, Senator from PA, calls Gen. John B. Gordon ‘among the organizers and earliest leaders’ of the KKK.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872

1872

May 23

Grant signs amnesty act of 1872 into law, pardoning nearly 20,000 former confederates

Dorris, 378 cited in Shepherd, "Southern Phoenix," 14.

1872

May 25

GW Cass of SRSC sends letter to confirm PARR's support and substance of agreement. 4 monthly payments of 850k for notes of R&D (@ 6 mos) endorsed by A&R Air Line & SRSC, further secured w/ deposit of 2d mort. 6% gold bonds of A&R, principal & interest guaranteed by R&D at 65cents on the dollar.

PARR,sec, Board files,BF series, box8, file 27

1872

May 29

contract for parts of Atlanta & Richmond Air Line in SC and NC transferred from PP Dickinson to RD Barclay (PARR lobbyist, corporator of SRSC)

R&D, 1872, 10

1872

before June 6

Pres. Rolins of Western Div, of WNCRR signs a lease with SRSC to build the road from Wolf Creek tto Asheville and to Waynesville, NC.

Gboro Pat, 6 June 1872, citing Charlotte Despatch.

1872

July

Talcott of NCRR demands larger cut of freight from Charlotte

ABA 1

 

 

 

 

1872

Sep 30

Atlanta & Richmond Air Line running from Charlotte to Whitaker's, SC, on the SC/NC border (~40 miles in 3.5 hours)

Charlotte Observer 1jan1873

1872

Sep

Johnston of CCA says SRSecCo files for foreclosure of WNCRR, 2 control it (the Sibley suit?)

ABA 2 (Harrison, 130)

1872

Sep

James H. Smith sells Charlotte Observer to Johnstone Jones

Claiborne, Charlotte Obs, 25

1872

Oct 4

Richmond & Danville takes over unfinished Northwestern North Carolina Railroad (chartered by Reconstruction convention of 1868) by a mortgage. R&D lays the rails.

TIlley, RJR, 57

1872

Nov 16

SRSC financial exhibit is drawn up by WK Jesup for PARR, so that SRSC can get from PARR 4 month draft of 500k and stock (paying 235k up front). List of stock owned by SRSC. SRSC says it has advanced 2.06 million to R&D on acct for contract to build Atlanta & Richmond Air Line. will advance 1.14 million more.

PARR, Sec, Board Files, BFseries, box 8, file 27

1872

Nov 20

results of election in Alamance show Senator for Alamance/Guilfor James T. Morehead Jr and WJ Murray conservatives. For the House, Jesse Gannt, conservative. Tod R. Caldwell, Republican, is made governor.

Gboro Pat, 20 Nov 1872

1872

Nov 27

PARR cmte on finance agrees that after it gets contract from SRSC for control of traffic of SRSC (acceptable to Pres) that it will subscribe to 2.5 million in shares (at 80%) when Pres is satisfied that other stockholders will contribute prorata for shares. will also accept 4 month drafts of up to 500k provided it gets notes or bonds from SRSC.

PARR, Sec, Minute Books of Fin cmte, v6, p4. Min bks of board, v6, 113-4.

1872

Nov

Tom Scott selects Herman Haupt to head daily operations of SRSecCo's Piedmont Air Line from Richmond to Atlanta (PAir = SRSC?)

Ward, Haupt,196

1872

Nov

Wash City, VA midland & Grt Southern rr formed of Orange, Alex & Manassas and the Lynchburg & Danville. shortly bought up by B&O

stover 144

1872

Dec 1

Herman Haupt starts as Genl Mgr of Piedmont Air Line

R&D, 1873, 135

1872

before Dec 31

Josiah Turner’s Raleigh Sentinel loses state printing contract to Raleigh News, apparently because Turner supported Judge Merrimon for Senate after Vance was nominated and supported by the Conservative Party. Love, Humphrey, Merrimon and Turner argue that Senator Waring of Mecklenburg who was appted to the Cmte on Public Printing and on Vance’s side, was in cahoots with the Pennsylvania RR. Speaker Jarvis was a central organizer. Turner complains of the Penn in February, "Everywhere it had gained a foothold it had bought up editors, lawyers and judges."

Charlotte Observer, 3 Jan., 18 Jan., 29 Jan 1873; "Senate" 30 Jan 1873; "The Discussion Yesterday," 2 Feb. 1873.

1872

 

Western and Southern Rwy Assn forms, dies in two years

Ward, Haupt, 198

1872

 

Adams Exp & Southern Exp lose VA&TN contract (SRSC owns it) & thus join SRSC against Mahone -- stopped freight interchange w/ AM&O

VA Conserv., 157.

1872

 

R&D advertises excursion train to the seashore

R&D genl ticket agents office flyer, from Compny Shops.see oclc

1873

before Jan 25

NC Senate passes bill to give Amnesty to "Heroes of America, Loyal Union League, Red Strings, North Carolina State Troops, North Carolina Militia, Jay Hawkers, Constitutional Union Guard, White Brotherhood, Invisible Empire, Ku Klux Klan, or any other organizations"

Charlotte Observer, 25 Jan 1873

1873

Jan-Feb

controversy flares over Turner’s loss of state printing contract. reveals split among conservatives. Supporters of Turner threaten to hold up the Amnesty bill for Klansmen until justice is done to Turner.

Charlotte Observer, 22 Feb. 1873.

1873

Feb. 18

Spring term of Alamance Court commences.Tourgee presiding, state docket taken up by Solicitor Bulla. "We have seen all the lights and scenes that make Graham famous, viz: the tree upon which Outlaw was hung, corn whiskey and red mud, &c.

"Local-atorial Correspondence" Tourgee scrapbook, Tourgee papers, Item 2428, roll 18.

1873

before 20 Feb

"The Asheville Pioneer says: The purchase by Mr. Rufus Y. McAden, in behalf of the Southern Security Company, of the Spartanburg and Union Railroad, has rather elated our people, as they confidently believe it will be extended to this point and hence down the river to Wolf Creek".

Charlotte Observer, 20 Feb. 1873.

1873

Feb 25

NC House bill to amend charter of Western NCRR to allow it to use convicts. Passes 2d reading.

Charlotte Observer, 28 Feb. 1873.

 

 

 

 

1873

~March 6

R&D, through Henry Clews et. al, acquires Northwestern?/Western NCRR by lease. After negotiations with NC General Assembly, a (Superior?) court case decided before RP Dick, and a Supreme Court case decided 6 March, it goes to Pres. Howerton. William Ashley Whitaker declares "The North Carolina R.R. is the roughest handler in the world and would tear up the Devil if a chance at him could be had."

(quote) Tilley, RJR, 58; (nc assy) Charlotte Ob, 28 Jan 1873; "Legislature of NC," 16 Feb 1873

1873

before? March 13

WW Holden is nominated postmaster for Raleigh.

Charlotte Observer, 13 Mar 1873

1873

March 28

A&R Airline opened from Charlotte to Spartanburg

R&D, 1873, 135

1873

April 28

A&R Airline opened from Charlotte to Greenville

R&D, 1873, 135

1873

April

"The awful Colfax massacre, the most atrocious ever known in the United States"

NY Daily Tribune, 3 Feb 1880.

1873

Aug 21

Votes show that Seaboard and Roanoke controls the Raleigh and Gaston RR

McGuire, "SAL" 101

1873

Aug

Johnston of CCA makes printed circular. Says Security Co. secretly bought majority of CCA, owns Air-line & road to Wilmington

ABA 10

1873

Sep 1

Seaboard Air Line Agency formed to "protect the interests of the Raleigh and Gaston". (formed much earlier, see above 8 May 1868.)

McGuire "SAL" 102.

1873

Sep10

SRSC resolves to allow sale of R&D stock, advances made to R&D for A&R and stocks in W AL and Mobile & Montgomery. Price: 3 mil, 1.332 mil of which are 1st mort bonds of A&R. signed James Roosevelt, witnessed by CP Mackie, Secy. (On Back: These Must Be Altered)

PARR board files, BF Series, Box 8, file 27

1873

Sep 14

Air Line completed from Charlotte to Spartanburg. 1st telegram read: "The ‘Hornets of old Mecklenburg’ congratulate the ‘Sons of Cowpens’ upon your first communication over the telegraph wire of the enterprising Southern & Atlantic Telegraph Co. W.F. Davidson, Mayor"

JBO Landrum, Hist of S’burg County, 42.

1873

Sep 18

Cooke & Co, 'foremost Amer banking house' closes its doors, triggering panic on Wall St. Few US bond houses survive, 'Leadership now passed to int'l bankers like Drexel, Morgan, Speyer, Seligman & a few others'.

Carosso, Invstmnt Bnkg, 25-6.

1873

Sep 25

SRSC proposes to sell R&D and Atlanta & Richmond Air Line interest + Western rr of AL and Mobile & Montgomery (allows control from Richmond to Mobile)

PARR, Sec, Minbks of BoD, v6, 212-3 (missing 214+)

1873

Sep 28

Atlanta & Richmond Air Line completed

R&D, 1873, 135

1873

Sep

PARR subscribes further to SRSC, costing 195,933.33 for 11456 shares ($17.10 a share)

PARR, Sec, minbks of bod, v6, 232-3

1873

Sep, Oct, Nov

PARR says it made advances of sterling to SRSC, taking as security "Air Line System" from Richmond to Atlanta & Raleigh and from Raleigh to G'boro.

PARR, Minbks BoD, v6, 232-3

1873

Nov 21

Special mtg of SRSC in NY to consider retrenchemnt. Roosevelt resigns to "William Hugbart" ( Wm Hughart)

stover 119

1873

Nov 26

SRSC board agrees that cmte (Roosevelt, Newcomer & Jesup) will sell to PARR for 1.825 mil what it though had already been sold for 2 mil

CP Mackie, secy, SRSC to Joseph Lesley, Secy, 20jan74 PARR, PARR,BF, box 8, file 27

1873

Nov 28

special PARR board mtg to consider action on SRSC. Board refuses to support purchase of Air Line system until Thomson personally examines the system.

PARR, Minbks BoD, v6, 232-4.

1873

Dec 1-3

Edgar Thomson recommends purchase of Air Line system after inspecting line from Richmond to Charlotte.

PARR board files, BF Series, Box 8, file 27

1873

Dec 4

PARR board votes to accept the stocks and bonds of Air Line system for 1.825 million already advanced, after advice by counsel that as of 17 march 1869 they can purchase stock & bonds of rr cos incorporated by other states. Only EC Knight on the board opposes the purchase.

PARR, Minbks BoD, v6, 235

1873

Dec 6

PARR finance cmte agrees to SRSC cmte proposal. PARR will accept stocks and bonds from SRSC to settle 1.825 million for advances made.

PARR, Sec, Min bks Fin Cmte, v1,225-6

1873

Dec 20

NCRR charter revised to allow it to consolidate w/ WNCRR and finish connection btw Salisbury & Paint Rock

Harrison, 130

1873

late

CC&A changes administration, severing traffic agreement with R&D, pushing toward Charleston?. Felt most in 1874. CC&A reconnected in 1878

R&D, Annl Rpt, 1878, 204

1873

 

William Clyde & father purchase Richmond & York River and arrange connections to Richmond. Then they form Balt., Chesapeake & Richmond Steamboat Co (Balt to West Pt). then get charter for Richmond, York River & Chesapeake rr with authority to hold stock in the steamboat co.

grt, 87

1874

Jan 13

PARR finance cmte informally agrees to aid R&D - 20k each for Jan and Feb and 1200 tons of rails.

PARR, Sec, Min bks Fin cmte, v1, 230

1874

Feb 25

AS Buford asks PARR for 100k before March 2 to pay balance of semi-annual rental due to NCRR

PARR, Sec, Min bks Fin Cmte, v1, 232

1874

Feb 28

PARR finance cmte agrees to grant aid asked by AS Buford, "upon such terms as the 2nd vice President of this Co. may demand"

PARR, Sec, Min bks Fin Cmte, v1, 232

1874

April 1

SRSecCo cancels lease of Memphis & Charleston(stover says Apr 30th , p.117)

grt 70

1874

Oct 1

Mahone's Atl, MS & OH fails 1st semi-annual interest pmt

SW VA & Shen Vall, 78.

1874

October?

Democrats capture a majority in Congress, 2 years after Amnesty Act of 1872

Pearce, Benjamin H Hill, 265 Shepherd, 16

1874

Nov 25

Atl & Richmond Air-Line goes to a receiver

stover 113,145

 

 

 

 

 

1875

March

Buford gets courts to sustain NCRR gauge change

grt 60

 

 

 

 

1875

Apr 1

Mahone's Atl, MS & OH fails 2d semi-annual interest pmt

SW VA & Shen Vall, 78.

1875

Apr

Clyde's Richmond, York River & Chesapeake (York River Line) enters into traffic agreement which makes it part of Piedmont Air Line

grt 87, stover 235

1875

July-Sep

Southern Railway and Steamship Assn formed, proposed by Herman Haupt to a general convention of rrs in Atlanta.Sets rates, ests div of pools.

grt 70, Ward, Haupt, 198-9

1875

April

Clydes (steamship owners) make traffic agreement w/ York River, adding to Piedmont Air Line

grt 87

1875

April 17

NCRR's interest in WNCRR is assigned to Commissioners of the state of NC as settlement of litigation in Sibley suit.

Harrison, 130

1875

July-Sep

Southern Railway and Steamship Assn formed, proposed by Herman Haupt to a general convention of rrs in Atlanta.Sets rates, ests div of pools.

grt 70, Ward, Haupt, 198-9

 

 

 

 

1875

before Oct

AB Andrews made Super of NCDiv of R&D Leading NC rep of R&D

Dixie, Aug 1885:29

1875

Oct. 11

NC State convention adjourns after 81 working days.

Tourgee scrapbook, Tourgee papers, Roll 18.

1875

Oct 13

Southern Railway & Steamship Assn organized. genl commissioner is Albert Fink. led to slow reduction of rates

stover 151-2

1875

Oct

Herman Haupt's office of Genl mgr abolished by Board of Dirs of R&D

Ward, Haupt, 200

 

 

 

 

 

1876

1876

June 6

Atlantic, MS & OH: Judge Bond of the US Circuit court of VA appts Charles L. Perkins of NY and Maj. Henry FInk (gen super) as receivers.

stover 138

1876

July

Wash city, VA midland & grt southern goes into receivership

stover 144

1876

Dec 5

Atlanta & Richmond Air-Line sold to bondholders, later reorganized as Atlanta & Charlotte Air-Line in April 1877

stover, 113,145-6

1876

Dec

SRSC sellling securities, except for R&D

stover 119

1876?

 

CCA, freed from SRSC, diverts thru traffic from Danville to Wilm, Columbia & Augusta

grt 63

 

 

 

 

1878

fall

R&D gets lg. interes in Char, Col & Aug

stover 235

1879

 

L&N outbids ETV&G for Georgia Western franchise (1854), to link GA & AL. (will become Georgia Pacific)

grt 91

1880

March 8

Charter for Richmond and West Point Terminal Railway and Warehouse Company obtained in SC through Col. W.W. Gordon. (&VA, by Clyde & Logan) All directors of terminal are directors of R&D. This happens more than 3 months before Clyde syndicate's activities are widely known.

Morrill, Bldr of the New South, 149-50. stover 235,237.(grt 89-90)

1880

March 12

agreement reached between Tom Scott (Pres) George B Roberts (vp) of PARR with WP Clyde. Clyde will pay $50 a share for ~24000 shares. About 746k in bonds at 95% of par (leaving PARR with 1.5 million) agreement to issue no more general mortgage bonds without first buying the 1.5 million at at least 95%. Joint contract for passenger, express, light freight overPARR controlled lines North "between Richmond and New York and intermediate points" for 20 yrs. purchase of Char Col & Aug shares at cost.

PARR Board Minutes. Board File # 27.

1880

March

Genl. Thomas M. Logan and Major James H. Dooly buying up Richmond & Danville stock for Richmond Terminal, mostly from PA RR. Stock in the terminal bought in Richmond?

Morrill, Bldr of the New South, 150,156.

1880

Apr 15

Clyde, Wm. A Courtney, Joseph Bryan & TM Logan (all of Richmond Terminal) purchase Columbia & Greenville, later leasing 3 tributary lines (Blue Ridge, Laurens, and Spartanburg, Union & Columbia)

stover 239

1880

Apr 27

NC sells WNCRR to Wm. J. Best of NY, who sighs it over to Rich Terminal group of Buford, Clyde & Logan

stover 145

1880

May 1

Tom Scott, on advice of his physician, tenders resignation. Effectve June 1.

Schotter, 190

1880

May

former Senator John B. Gordon of GA (soon to be R&D extension guy) buys paper project: GA western railway, from L&N. Sells half to ETV&G, half to Richmond Terminal.

stover 240

1880

June 1

Tom Scott no longer pres of PARR

Schotter, 190

1880

June?

PARR sells R&D stock to "Clyde Syndicate", including Walters, Newcomer, Plant & Wilson

stover 120

1880

Spring

Clyde syndicate (including SRSC men & Richmond men) takes over Danville stock

grt 86

1880

Oct

Col. Cole of ETV&G convinces stockholders that they should expand, bringing in NY syndicate of Genl. Samuel Thomas, George I. Seney (dir of Met bank of NY) and Calvin S. Brice

stover 198

1880

Dec 20

Wash city, va midland & grt southern sold @ auction to B&O, reorg as VA midland

stover 144

1881

Feb 10

Clarence H. Clark & assoc. purchase Atl, MS & OH from VA court

SW VA & Shen Vall, 79.

1881

Feb 26

John B. Gordon of GA buys Georgia Western franchise from Newcomb of the L&N. Immediately sells half interest to ETV&G.

grt, 91-2

1881

Feb

Garrett of B&O sells his controlling interest in VA midland to John S. Barbour(!race riot guy?), assoc. w/ Richmond & Danville

stover 144

1881

March 26

R&D leases Atlanta & Charlotte Air-Line

stover 238

1881

Apr 4

Clark & assoc. designated Norfolk & Western by court-appted commissioner

SW VA& Shen Vall, 79-80

1881

May 21

Tom Scott dies at his home.

Schotter, 190

1881

May 28

R&D Extension co chartered in NJ. Terminal retains 51% of stock. marks the beginning of GA Pacific.

grt, 92

1881

June 1

Clyde associates form a stock pool, signing an "ironclad" pool agreement.

grt 94-5

1881

June 21

Clyde sells his interest in the Char, Col & Aug rr to Richmond Terminal.

grt, 91

1881

July 1

R&D leases Richmond, York River & Chesapeake in perpetuity for $85,000 /yr

stover 237

1881

July 30

Senator John Gordon & Richmond Terminal sign agreement for Georgia Pacific as successor to GA Western bought from L&N. Plans go from Atlanta to Greenville, MS on the river. Built to B'ham in Nov. 1883 by Richmond & Danville Extension co.

grt 92-3, stover 240

1881

before Aug

Richmond Terminal faces competitive threat from B&O. B&O tried to get control ofAtlanta & Charlotte Air Line and talked of their own line thru Danville to Spartanburg. Alarmed, Clyde leases his York River road to Terminal and leases Air-Line after "resolving differences within the Air-Line". B&O counters with suit denying validity of lease. Eventually B&O gives up in on 26 august.

grt, 92

1881

August 26

B&O, discouraged by setbacks, disposes of VA Midland to Terminal. (see Mahone bio ch 4&5 for reasons)

grt 92-3

1881

Autumn

Danville begins paying regular quarterly dividends & goes onto NY Stock exchange

grt 94

1881

late Oct

NY members of Clyde's Ironclad pool (june 1 1881) force a change in org. any holder of pool certificates can take them to Central Trust Co and get stock within 90 days. leads to rumors of a Perkins syndicate or break in pool. Stock prices begin to skyrocket.

grt 95-6

1881

Dec

Capital stock in terminal increased from 3 mil to 5 mil. Danville has to issue 4 mil in debenture bonds (at 45 to holders) to retain control.

grt 97

1881

 

CR Boyd's book Resources of SW VA comes out calling for cap invest, (Boyd is friend of Mahone & opposes N. rrs)

(VCON, 149)

1881

 

R&D issues invitations to visit Yorktown on the centennial of the siege

oclc 5629559

1881

 

Clyde Syndicate organizes into standing cmtes on finance, the road, real estate and incidental biz, and exec cmte. do this to cope with organizational demands.

grt 88-9

1881

 

Buford, Logan, Branch & Stokes form VA mining & mfg co to search for iron, coal & other mineral deposits.

grt 93

1881

 

Terminal & Danville build joint wharfage, whse, cotton compressing & shipping facilities in West Point

grt 93-94

1882

Jan

WNCRR (under Richmond Terminal control) penetrates mtns, completing connection with ETV&G

grt 93

1882

Feb early

R&D stock selling for a high 250 a share

stover 242

1882

March

Terminal capital stock increased from 5mil to 15mil. Danville has to increase capital stock by 1 mil to 5mil and pay for the remainder in cash to keep control. (can't increase gen mortgage b/c of agreement with PARR in March 1880)

grt 97 (PARR Board Minutes. Board File # 27.)

1882

March

Speculative bubble bursts. Even insiders (like Joseph Bryan) get hurt. Rumors that Clyde had used terminal to push up prices & then unloaded to break the market.

grt 96

1882

April 3

Capital stock of Richmond Term. raised from $5 mil to $15 mil.

stover 237

1882

July?

R&D has 827 miles, Terminal has 1248 miles (R&D was only 449 when purchased in 1880)

stover 237

1882

4th quarter

Danville has difficulty keeping up with debts. large advances to Extension Co for GA Pacific work. Rumors that Danville is borrowing at exorbitant rates. They skip the last quarterly dividend.

grt 97

1882

October

R&D stock selling for a low of 57 a share

stover 242

1882

late

Many Richmond investors sell off stock. "Aging and infirm" James Stewar sells 5000 shares. Most apparently goes to New Yorkers including John D Rockefeller.

grt 98

1882

December

Robert Harris of NY (John D Rockefeller interests) elected as a new director of Danville and Terminal Boards along with John A. Rutherford and M. Bayard Brown.

stover 242, grt 98

 

 

 

 

1883

March

Norf & Western ships out first load of coal

stover 204

1883

July

R&D stock drops to low of 55. Terminal drops to 28. high floating debt apparent.

grt 98

1883

summer

Clyde forms new syndicate with 1)east tennessee group and George S. Scott and 2) First National crowd. They begin to buy up stock in R&D. They will oust Logan as vp of terminal, Robert Harris, Bayard Brown and Rutherfurd.

grt 99-100

1883

summer

new Syndicate takes over R&D: George S. Scott, Wm. P Clyde, George T. Baker, ED Fahnestock, Samuel Thomas, Calvin S. Brice & George I Seney. Brice says this implicit ETV&G union w/ R&D would make greater interchange of biz & prosperity

stover 242-3

1883

Sep

R&D influence appearing in ETV&G as R&D personnel like George S. Scott shows up on Board of Dir.

stover 202

1883

Nov

Georgia Pacific reaches Birminham

grt, 93

1883

 

R&D rr crashes, b/c of Jay Gould's depressing the stock through his representative George S. Scott. Gould then buys up R&D stock.

Morrill, 157.

 

 

 

 

1884

before May

Terminal elects to close hq in Richmond to cut costs. slash improvement expenditures, ran down system physically to cut operating ratio from 60.2% to 48.3% in 1883 & 1884.

grt 101

1884

May 3

Buford resigns as pres of Danville, finding that Danville's hq will move to NY. Co lawyer Schenck says "there is not an employee nor officer of the whole system...who does not feel a pang of sorrow and regret at the retirement of so good and true and faithful a man."

grt 101

1884

May

George I. Seney's (dir on ETV&G) Metropolitan bank of ny fails

stover 198

1884

late

R&D charter amended to allow it to hold stock in rrs that don't connect to it. Makes Terminal unnecessary.

106

1885

Jan

ETV&G goes into receivership and Henry Fink, prev. gen mgr, is appted receiver.

stover 202

1885

Feb

George Scott steps down from terminal board to let Frederic W. Huidekoper taoke over operations.

grt 102

 

 

 

 

1885

summer

ACL, S&R and Piedmont Air-Line sign agreement forming Associated Railways of VA and the Carolinas. valuable supplement to Southern Railway & Steamship Assn.

grt 102

1885

Sep

Passenger rate war btw. ETV&G (in receivership) and Joseph E. Brown's Western and Atlantic

"Correspondence of Joseph E. Brown..." at Va State Lib

 

1886

April 15

R&D leases Virginia Midland Rwy

Bill Klossner, "Postwar Alexandria and the RR" paper for me dec '94

1886

May 25

old mgmt group of ETV&G repurchases the co. at foreclosure sale

stover 202

1886

May-Oct

R&D strips holding co of rr securities, as Terminal is superfluous. takes long term leases & stock control of various Terminal roads.

stover 243

1886

Oct-Nov

Stover says Richmond Terminal pool is supported by newcomers (Robert K Dow, Henry Morrison Flagler, Emanuel Lehman, George F Stone & Alfred Sully) who buy up R&D stock for Richmond Terminal (unlikely, given the Morrill account, who argues something like blackmail)

stover 244

1886

Nov. 22

R&D rr control obtained by Richmond Terminal, with the help of John D. Rockefeller. Logan proves that R&D leases were illegal & req'd consent of Richmond Terminal. Gould & Scott sell R&D stock to Logan et. al, keeping 5000 shares.

Morill, 159-61.

1887

Jan 3

Genl. EP Alexander (backed by NY money) takes over as pres. of GA central.

stover 247

1887

Jan-Feb

Richmond & West Point rr takes over ETV&G. ET officials Calvin S Brice, Samuel Thomas & George S Scott returned to membership of Richmond Terminal. ETV&G gains Rich Term members.

stover 202,245-6

1887

Feb 6

Seaboard Air Line starts an important extension: the Georgia, Carolina and Northern which will go from Carolina Central at Monroe, NC to Atlanta, GA. completed 24 April 1892. From consolidation of charters in NC, SC & GA.

Joubert, "Hist of t Seaboard Air Line Rwy" U FL thesis, 1935, 111-2

1887

fall

Georgia Co. Syndicate organized - Alfred Sully, Isaac G. Rice, Emanuel Lehman, John H. Inman, James Swan & John C. Calhoun. Right to hold rrs in adjoining states or NC. In the same season they purchase majority of Central rr of GA. Genl EP Alexander remains pres.

stover 247-8

1888

April

John Inman, dir of Richmond Term and leader of GA co. syndicate becomes pres. of Richmond Terminal.

stover 248

1888

Oct

Emanuel Lehman offers to sell all 120,000 shares of GA co to Richmond Terminal. Board, including Pres & 4 directors in GA co, purchase them at this high rate. Prosperous & expanding Central of GA controlled by Richmond & West Point Co.

stover 206,248-9

1892

April 24

Seaboard Air Line's Georgia, Carolina and Northern RR from Monroe, NC to Atlanta, GA is completed. S&R's earnings nearly double (2.0 mil to 3.9 mil) in the decade from 1889 to 1899. big dividends declared on S&R, R&G common stock for 1892 & 1893. /Must cut into Southern's profits/

Joubert, 112-4

1893

August

Seaboard Air Line begins operation under pooling agreement. S&R was dominant w/ controlling interest in stock of other roads.

joubert, 115