for more info about this microfilm set go to the upa pubs American studies collections at Lexis-Nexis

Southern Women and Their Families
in the 19th Century

Papers and Diaries

Series A, Holdings of the Southern Historical Collections,
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Part 6: Virginia

General Introduction

The creation of history as a scholarly discipline has always depended on the discovery, preservation, and accessibility of primary sources. Some of the leading figures in the first generation of academic historians in the United States spent much of their time and energy on this endeavor and in so doing made possible the work of their colleagues who wrote monographs and general histories. The inventions of microfilm and photocopying have vastly improved access to such sources.

At any given time the prevailing conceptions of what is significant in the past will determine which sources are sought and valued. When politics and diplomacy are the center of historians' concern, government documents, treaties, newspapers, and correspondence of political leaders and diplomats will be collected and made accessible. When intellectual history is ascendant, the works of philosophers and reflective thinkers will be studied, analyzed, and discussed. Economic historians will look for records of trade, evidence of price fluctuations, conditions of labor, and other kinds of data originally collected for business purposes. The propensity of modern governments to collect statistics has made possible whole new fields for historical analysis.

In our own time social historians have flourished, and for them evidence of how people of all kinds have lived, felt, thought, and behaved is a central concern. Private diaries and personal letters are valued for the light they throw on what French historians label the mentalité of a particular time and place. The fact that such documents were usually created only for the writer, or for a friend or relative, gives them an immediacy not often found in other kinds of records. At best the writers tell us--directly or by implication--what they think and feel and do. Even the language and the allusions in such spontaneous expression are useful to the historian, whose inferences might surprise the writer could she know what was being made of her words.

This microfilm series focuses on a particular group (women) in a particular place (the South) in a particular time (the nineteenth century). The fact that many of these documents exist is a tribute to the work of several generations of staff members at the leading archives of the South such as the Southern Historical Collection at Chapel Hill, North Carolina; the William R. Perkins Library at Duke University; the Alderman Library at the University of Virginia; the South Caroliniana Library; the Lower Mississippi Valley Collection, Louisiana State University; the Swem Library at the College of William and Mary, Colonial Williamsburg; and several state historical societies. The legend of Southern Historical Collection founder J. G. DeRoulhac Hamilton who, in his effort to preserve the evidence of the southern past, traveled about in his Model A Ford knocking on doors, asking people to look in their attics and cellars for material, is well known. The result of his labors and those of his counterparts and successors is a vast collection that includes thousands of letters from women of all ages and hundreds of diaries or diary fragments. Only a small part of this material has been studied by professional historians. Some family collections cover decades, even several generations. Others are fragmentary: diaries begun in moments of enthusiasm and shortly abandoned; letters sporadically saved.

The years of the Civil War are particularly well documented, since many women were convinced that they were living through momentous historical events of which they should make a record. After the war ended and the "new South" began to take shape, other women wrote memoirs for their children and grandchildren, hoping to preserve forever their memories of a better time "before the war" or to record the sacrifices and heroism they had witnessed. The United Daughters of the Confederacy made a special effort to persuade women to record their wartime memories. In the best of circumstances--and each collection included in this edition was chosen precisely with this consideration in mind--the collections preserve the voices of one or more women through letters or diaries that cover many years.

Although women's letters to soldiers were often lost in the mud and carnage of battlefields, soldiers' letters were treasured and have survived in abundance. If it is true, as Virginia Woolf once wrote, that in writing a letter one tries to reflect something of the recipient, then these letters, too, may add to our understanding of the lives of women and families.1 Moreover so many of the soldiers' letters respond to women's questions, give hints or instructions on managing property, and allude to family life and routine at home, that they can be used to draw valid inferences about the activities of their female correspondents, even when the woman's side of the correspondence is altogether lost.

Seen through women's eyes, nineteenth-century southern social history takes on new dimensions. Subjects that were of only passing interest when historians depended on documents created by men now move to center stage. Women's letters dwell heavily on illness, pregnancy, and childbirth. From them we can learn what it is like to live in a society in which very few diseases are well understood, in which death is common in all age groups, and in which infant mortality is an accepted fact of life. A woman of forty-three, writing in 1851, observed that her father, mother, four sisters, three brothers, and two infants were all dead, and except for her father, none had reached the age of thirty-six.2

Slavery has been a central concern of southern historians, generally from the white male perspective. Seen through the eyes of plantation mistresses, the peculiar institution becomes even more complex. We can observe a few women searching their souls about the morality of the institution, and many more complaining bitterly about the practical burdens it places upon them. We can find mothers worrying about the temptations slave life offers to husbands and sons--and even occasionally expressing sympathy for the vulnerability of slave women. Some claim to be opposed to the institution but do not take any steps to free their own slaves. Others simply agonize. There is, unfortunately, no countervailing written record to enable us to see the relationship from the slaves' point of view.

Until late in the century the word feminism did not exist, and in the South "women's rights" were often identified with the hated antislavery movement. "Strong-minded woman" was a term of anathema. Even so we find antebellum southern women in their most private moments wondering why men's lives are so much less burdened than their own and why it is always they who must, as one woman wrote, provide the ladder on which a man may climb to heaven. Very early in the nineteenth century women's letters sometimes dwelt on the puzzling questions having to do with women's proper role. After the Civil War a Georgia diarist reflected, apropos the battle over black suffrage, that if anyone, even the Yankees, had given her the right to vote she would not readily give it up.3 As early as the 1860s a handful of southern women presented suffrage arguments to the state constitutional conventions. After 1865 a surprising number of women spoke out in favor of suffrage and a larger number were quiet supporters. There were, of course, equally ardent opponents, and until 1910 or so, organizing suffrage associations was uphill work. As one goes through these records, however, suffragists and advocates of women's rights emerge from the dim corners in which they tended to conceal themselves when they were alive.

The conventional view that southern women eschewed politics will not survive a close reading of these records. In 1808 one letter writer regretted the fact that a male literary society would have no more parties since she enjoyed listening to the men talk politics.4 As early as the 1820s there is evidence for women's participation in political meetings and discussions. Such involvement continued through the secession debates and the difficult days of reconstruction. A South Carolina memoir offers a stirring account of the role of women in the critical election of 1876.5 By the 1870s southern women were already using their church societies to carve out a political role, and by the end of the century they had added secular clubs, many of them focused on civic improvement.

Reading women's documents we can envision the kinds of education available to the most favored among them. Many women kept records of their reading and much of it was demanding: Plutarch's Lives, for example, or Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. A very young woman who recorded reading Humboldt's Kosmos, Milton's Paradise Lost, Madame De Stael's Corinne, and Guizot's History of Civilization was not altogether unique. Others castigated themselves for reading novels and resolved (sometimes over and over) to undertake more serious study. At the very beginning of the nineteenth century a young woman from southwest Virginia had gone to Williamsburg to school, presumably to a female academy or seminary.6 There are many examples of strenuous efforts at self-education, and in the privacy of their diaries some women admitted to a passionate longing for knowledge (reading clubs, for example, were described as "a peace offering to a hungry mind").7 Of course one of the limitations of sources such as these is precisely that they come principally from the minority who had some education. It is up to the perceptive historian to extrapolate from these documents to the poorer women, the slave women, and all those who seldom left a record at all. (There are occasional letters from slaves in these voluminous collections, but they are rare.)

Papers that cover a considerable period provide us with many real-life dramas. Courtship patterns and marriage and family experience emerge. We see the widow left with children to support as she tries various options to earn a living--and in some cases takes to drink to ease her burdens. We see the single woman cast on her own resources as she tries teaching or housekeeping for a widower to keep body and soul together. Single sisters of wives who died young were likely to wind up first taking care of the bereft children and then marrying the widower. Other single women bemoan their fate and reflect that it might be better to be dead than to live single. In the 1880s women of the Carter family took over the running of Shirley Plantation.8 Married or single, rich or poor, many women inadvertently reveal the socialization that has persuaded them that they should never complain, that they must be the burden bearers of family life.

Through the whole century, while the rest of the country was restlessly urbanizing, the South remained predominantly an agricultural society. Women's records allow us to see the boredom of rural life in which almost any bit of news, any adolescent wickedness, any youthful romance is subject for comment. We see also the profound religious faith that supported many women through poverty, childbirth, widowhood, and the other trials that filled their lives. The religious history of the Civil War emerges as we see faith challenged by defeat, and many women beginning to question things they had always believed.

No reader of these documents can any longer doubt that plantation women, in addition to supervising the work of slaves, worked very hard themselves. Depending on their level of affluence, women might take care of livestock and chickens, plant and harvest gardens, card, spin and weave, make quilts, sew clothes, and perform many other specific tasks. The Soldiers' Aid Societies that formed so quickly after secession rested on just these skills developed in the previous years.

One of the most interesting aspects of southern culture that emerges from papers such as these is the views women and men had of each other. No matter how much a woman admired any particular man, she often viewed men in general with extreme skepticism and sometimes with outright bitterness. Men were often described as selfish, authoritarian, profligate, given to drinking too much, and likely to judge women as a class, not in terms of their individual attributes. Many women found their economic dependence galling. In spite of the rather general chafing at the confines of patriarchy, individual women were devoted to and greatly admired their own husbands, sons, and fathers. Women who traveled spoke with admiration of the independence exhibited by northern women (this both before and after the Civil War). Discontent with their own lot included a good deal of private railing against constant childbearing and the burdens of caring for numerous children.

The concept of a woman's culture is borne out by much of what can be read here. Women frequently assume that they say and feel things that only other women can understand.

It would be difficult to exaggerate the significance of this microfilm publication. Historians of women have been making use of many of these collections for three decades or more. Now it is gradually becoming clear that they are useful to the student of almost any aspect of southern culture and society. In a recent example, Clarence Mohr, writing about slavery in Georgia, realized that women's records were virtually his only source for testing the well-established southern myth that all slaves had been docile, helpful workers when men went to war and left their wives and children to supervise plantations. Years earlier Bell Irwin Wiley had suggested that the story was more complicated than that, but it did not occur to him to look for evidence in women's papers. The description of such docility never seemed reasonable, but it was believed by many people, even some who had every reason to know better. In a close examination of women's diaries and letters, Mohr found a quite different picture, one of slaves who, when the master departed, became willful and hard to direct and who gave the mistress many causes for distress. To be sure, they did not often murder families in their beds, but they became lackadaisical about work, took off without permission, talked back, and ran away to the Yankees when opportunity presented itself. They made use of all the thousand and one ways of expressing the frustration bondsmen and women must always feel.9

Wartime documents are revealing in other ways. We can see rumors flying, as victories and defeats were created in the mind, not on the battlefield. We sense the tension of waiting for word from men in the army. We see the women gradually losing faith that God will protect them from the invaders. For some, religion itself is called in question by the experience of invasion and defeat.

As we move into the remaining decades of the nineteenth century, these records allow us to trace some of the dramatic social changes of the postwar world. In one family we see a member of the generation of post-Civil War single women earning her living in a variety of ways and then beginning a full-time career as a teacher at the age of fifty-eight. She continued to teach well into her eighth decade. This particular set of papers is especially valuable since it goes through three generations--a wonderful exposition of social change as revealed in the lives of women.10

We must be struck by the number of men in the immediate postwar years who chose suicide over the challenges of creating a new society without slaves. In records from the second half of the century we can see lynching from the white perspective, observe the universal experience of adolescence, watch the arrival of rural free delivery of mail and the coming of the telephone, and many other evidences of change. Reading these personal documents the historian may be reminded of Tolstoy's dictum that all happy families are alike, while unhappy families are each unhappy in their own way. One may be tempted to revise the aphorism to say that every family is sometimes happy and sometimes unhappy--the balance between the two states makes for a satisfactory or unsatisfactory life. Reading family papers one may also be forcefully reminded of Martha Washington, writing about the difficulties she faced as first lady. She was, she said, "determined to be cheerful and to be happy, in whatever situation I may be; for I have also learned from experience that the greater part of our happiness or misery depends upon our dispositions, and not upon our circumstances."11

From the larger perspective of the social historian, records such as these will help us develop a more comprehensive picture of life as it was experienced by the literate part of the southern population over a century. They help us understand the intricate interaction of individual lives and social change. We can see the world through eyes that perceive very differently from our own and understand better the dramatic shifts in values that have occurred in the twentieth century. Like any other historical data these must be used with care, with empathy, with detachment, and with humility. But given those conditions they will add significantly to our understanding of a world that in one sense is dead and gone, and in another sense lives on in the hearts and minds and behavior patterns of many southern people.

Anne Firor Scott
W. K. Boyd Professor of History
Duke University

1Nigel Nicholson and Joanne Trautmen, eds. The Letters of Virginia Woolf, Vol. IV: 1929-1931 (New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979), p. 98. "It is an interesting question--what one tries to do, in writing a letter--partly of course to give back a reflection of the other person...."

2Anne Beale Davis Diary, February 16, 1851, Beale-Davis Papers, Southern Historical Collection.

3Ella Gertrude Clanton Thomas Diary, November 2, 1868, William R. Perkins Library, Duke University.

4Jane C. Charlton to Sarah C. Watts, Sarah C. Watts Papers, Swem Library, College of William and Mary.

5Sally Elmore Taylor Memoir, Franklin Harper Elmore Papers, Southern Historical Collection.

6Sarah C. Watts Papers.

7Hope Summerell Chamberlain, "What's Done and Past," unpublished autobiography, William R. Perkins Library, Duke University.

8Shirley Plantation Papers, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.

9Clarence L. Mohr, On the Threshold of Freedom: Masters and Slaves in Civil War Georgia (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1986).

10Mary Susan Ker Papers, Southern Historical Collection.

11John P. Riley, "The First Family in New York." Mount Vernon Ladies Association Annual Report, 1989, p. 23.

Note on Sources

The collections microfilmed in this edition are holdings of the Southern Historical Collection, Manuscripts Department, Academic Affairs Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599. The descriptions of the collections provided in this user guide are adapted from inventories compiled by the Southern Historical Collection. The inventories are included among the introductory materials on the microfilm.

Historical maps microfilmed among the introductory materials are courtesy of the Map Collection of the Academic Affairs Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Maps consulted include:
Andrees Allgemeiner, Handatlas, 1899;
Thomas G. Bradford, Comprehensive Atlas, 1835;
J. H. Colton, General Atlas, 1870; and
S. Augustus Mitchell, "A New Map of Kentucky," 1846.

Editorial Note

The reel indexes for this edition provide the user with a précis of each collection. Each précis provides information on family history and many business and personal activities documented in the collection. Omissions from the microfilm edition are noted in the précis and on the microfilm.

Following the précis, the reel indexes itemize each file folder and manuscript volume. The four-digit number to the left of each entry indicates the frame number at which a particular document or series of documents begins.

A subject index, which is keyed to the information provided in the reel indexes for Parts 1-3, appears at the end of the user guide.

Researchers should note that significant other papers and diaries of southern women are included in UPA's microfilm edition of Records of Ante-Bellum Southern Plantations from the Revolution through the Civil War and Women's Studies Manuscript Collections from the Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe College, Series 1: Woman Suffrage, Part C: The South. Subsequent parts of Southern Women and Their Families in the 19th Century: Papers and Diaries: Series A, Holdings of the Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill will extend to other regions of the South.

Other Introductory Material

Harrison Henry Cocke Papers, 1762-1904,
Prince George County, Virginia;
also Alabama, Pennsylvania, New York, and Argentina

Description of the Collection
Harrison Henry Cocke (1794-1873), Prince George County, Virginia, planter and U.S. naval captain, married his cousin, Elizabeth Ruffin (fl. 1809-1849) around 1828. Her brother was Edmund Ruffin (1794-1865), the noted agriculturalist and editor. After Elizabeth's death, Cocke married Emily Banister (fl. 1852-1868).

The papers consist chiefly of the personal correspondence of Cocke, his first wife, their daughters, Rebecca "Beck" Cocke Henley (fl. 1838-1899), Tariffa "Tiff" Cocke Witherspoon (fl. 1844-1874), Juliana Cocke (fl. 1849-1872), and Eliza "Bunnie" Cocke (fl. 1849-1871), and the Cocke's various cousins, grandchildren, and in-laws. Tariffa married William Alfred Witherspoon (d. 1862) of Greensboro, Alabama. Rebecca married a Dr. Henley of Richmond, Virginia. Juliana and Bunnie did not marry. The papers chiefly concern family and social life in Virginia and Alabama. Financial and legal papers are chiefly deeds, indentures, and receipts. Harrison's second wife is minimally represented in the papers.

The collection also includes papers related to Harrison Cocke's naval career. He served intermittently from 1812 until his resignation in 1861. Most of these papers are from 1848 to 1851 when Cocke commanded the U.S.S. St. Louis in the South Atlantic in the suppression of the illegal slave trade. During this period, Cocke was temporarily suspended for "neglect of duty."

Other items in the collection include two diaries kept by Elizabeth Ruffin around 1827; the devotional diary of Robert B. Banister kept on a sea voyage in 1849; Anne Banister's "Incidents in the Life of a Civil War Child," ca. 1904; and El Asesinato de Camila O'Gorman: Articulos del "Comercio Del Plata," 1848, a pamphlet that Cocke may have collected on one of his voyages that tells the story of Camila O'Gorman, the Argentine heroine who was executed in 1847 for eloping with a priest.

Papers relating chiefly to Harrison Henry Cocke and Elizabeth Ruffin Cocke have been placed in Series 1 and Series 2. Other Cocke family papers, chiefly correspondence among the Cocke's daughters, appears in Series 3.

The collection is arranged as follows: Series 1. Harrison Henry Cocke--Subseries 1.1: Business and Professional Papers, Subseries 1.2: Agricultural Improvement Papers, Subseries 1.3: Naval Papers, and Subseries 1.4: Personal Correspondence; Series 2. Elizabeth Ruffin Cocke--Subseries 2.1: Personal Correspondence and Subseries 2.2: Diaries; Series 3. Cocke Family; Series 4. Banister Family--Subseries 4.1: Robert B. Banister Journal and Subseries 4.2: Anne A. Banister Reminiscences; and Series 5. Camila O'Gorman.

Series 1. Harrison Henry Cocke, 1762-1870 and Undated
This series includes business and professional papers, items related to agricultural improvement, naval papers, and the personal correspondence of Harrison H. Cocke.

Subseries 1.1: Business and Professional Papers, 1762-1870 and Undated This subseries consists chiefly of indentures, inventories, wills, deeds for land and slaves, various receipts, and a brief report on the Brandon and Merchants Hope Church in Prince George County, Virginia. The earliest papers concern John Imray; his relation to the Cocke and Ruffin families is unknown. Other papers relate to Nathaniel Snelson, George Ruffin, John Hite, and James Epes.

Subseries 1.2: Agricultural Improvement Papers, 1846-1855 and Undated This subseries consists of reports and the constitution of the No. 1 Hole and Corner Club and a proposal to establish an agricultural school at an experimental farm.

Subseries 1.3: Naval Papers, 1815-1854 and Undated This subseries consists chiefly of orders, regulations, commissions, personal invitations to shipboard and port of call functions, and communications regarding Cocke's command. Items relating to the suppression of the slave trade and to Cocke's temporary suspension from command are located in folder 6.

Folder 7 contains a manuscript volume containing the "Rules and Regulations, U.S. Naval Yard, Pensacola," 1831-1838, that includes Harrison and Cocke family genealogies and newspaper clippings, ca. 1845-1888. Folder 8 contains a printed copy of "Naval Register of the United States for the Year 1834--a List of Commission and Warrant Officers, including the Marine Corps." Folder 9 contains a manuscript volume containing "Rules & Regulations of the USS St. Louis," ca. 1848-1852.

Subseries 1.4: Personal Correspondence, 1806-1868 This subseries consists chiefly of letters to Harrison H. Cocke from family members.

Series 2. Elizabeth Ruffin Cocke, 1825-1840s
This series includes personal correspondence and two diaries.

Subseries 2.1: Personal Correspondence, 1825-1840s This subseries consists chiefly of letters of Elizabeth Ruffin Cocke to her mother, Rebecca Woodlief, and to Elizabeth Ruffin Cocke from members of her family.

Subseries 2.2: Diaries, 1827 and Undated This subseries consists of Elizabeth's diaries before her marriage. One diary was kept at home, probably in the spring of 1827; the other is a travel diary describing a trip taken with her brother, possibly Edmund Ruffin (1794-1865), in
the fall of 1827 to the springs of New York and Pennsylvania. Both diaries contain entries documenting leisure and entertainment, courtship, and gender relations. In the travel diary, she also compared northern and southern society and the role of women in each. She also described
a Shaker meeting and a public execution in New York.

Series 3. Cocke Family, 1843-1876 and Undated
This series consists chiefly of correspondence of Tariffa, Beck, Juliana, and Bunnie Cocke, with occasional letters from Harrison and Elizabeth Cocke and other family members. The federal occupation of Williamsburg, Virginia, is described in a letter of 14 October 1862. Otherwise, there is little substantive information on the Civil War.

Series 4. Banister Family, 1841-1842, ca. 1904
This series consists of two writings by members of the Banister family.

Subseries 4.1: Robert B. Banister Journal, 1841-1842 This subseries, consists of the
journal of Dr. Robert B. Banister that was kept mostly while he was at sea aboard the U.S.S.
Levant and in the ports of Pensacola, Florida, and Norfolk, Virginia. Entries chiefly convey
his religious thoughts.

Subseries 4.2: Anne A. Banister Reminiscences, ca. 1904 This subseries consists of reminiscences entitled "Incidents in the Life of a Civil War Child," (typescript, 8 pp.) of Anne A. Banister (Mrs. A. Campbell Pryor) of Petersburg, Virginia, documenting her life during the waning days of the Civil War but written around 1904.

Series 5. Camila O'Gorman, 1848
Pamphlet entitled "El Asesinato de Camila O'Gorman" (in Spanish), about Camila O'Gorman, the Argentine heroine who eloped with a Jesuit priest, Ladislao Gutierrez, in 1847. They were executed by the Rosas regime in December of that year.

N.B. A related collection among the holdings of the Southern Historical Collection is the Ruffin and Meade Family Papers, which is included in UPA's Records of Ante-Bellum Southern Plantations from the Revolution through the Civil War, Series J, Part 9. Another related collection is the Cocke Family Papers of Dinwiddie County among the holdings of the Virginia Historical Society.

Francis Asbury Dickins Papers, 1729-1834,
Fairfax and Goochland Counties, Virginia;
also District of Columbia and Maryland

Description of the Collection
This collection consists primarily of family and legal papers. Family papers consist chiefly
of correspondence between members of the Dickins and Randolph families but also include a variety of other materials, such as clippings, genealogical information, and volumes. Legal office papers consist of materials relating to claims against the U.S. government generated in the legal practice of Francis Asbury Dickins.

The collection is arranged as follows: Series 1. Family Papers--Subseries 1.1: Correspondence and Related Papers--Subseries 1.1.1: 1729-1839, Subseries 1.1.2: 1840-1859, Subseries 1.1.3: 1860-1865, Subseries 1.1.4: 1866-1879, and Subseries 1.1.5: 1880-1934 and Undated, Subseries 1.2: Other Family Papers, Subseries 1.3: Volumes--Subseries 1.3:1. Diaries , Subseries 1.3.2: Account Books, Subseries 1.3.3: Commonplace Books, Subseries 1.3.4: Scrapbooks, Subseries 1.3.5: School Notebooks, and Subseries 1.3.6: Other Volumes; Series 2. Law Office Papers [not included]; and Series 3. Pictures.

Biographical Note
Asbury Dickins (1780-1861) was the son of John Dickins (1747-1798), an early leader of the Methodist Church, and Elizabeth Yancey (fl. 1780) of North Carolina. Except for a brief sojourn to England early in the nineteenth century, Asbury Dickins spent his adult life in Maryland and the District of Columbia working in various government departments. From 1829 to 1833, he served as chief clerk of the U.S. Treasury Department. For the next three years, he worked as chief clerk of the U.S. State Department. In both of these jobs, he occasionally served as acting secretary. In 1836, Asbury Dickins was chosen secretary of the U.S. Senate, a position he retained until his death in 1861.

Asbury Dickins married Lilias Arnot of Scotland, and they had four sons--Hugo, James, Francis Asbury, and Thomas--and one daughter, Lilia, who married Charles Stewart McCauley, a naval officer. Francis Asbury Dickins (1804-1901) followed his father into government service and was also a lawyer. In the late 1820s and the 1830s, he worked as an agent for the War and Treasury departments. By 1839, Francis Asbury had opened a law office in partnership with his brother, James, specializing in "claims before Congress, and other branches of the Government." In 1841, he formed a law partnership with Cornelius P. Van Ness, former governor of Vermont, maintaining his specialty in government claims.

Francis Asbury Dickins married Margaret Harvie Randolph (d. 1891) in 1839. Although Dickins maintained his law office in Washington, the newlyweds' official residence was Ossian Hall, a plantation in Fairfax County, Virginia. Margaret Harvie Randolph Dickins was the daughter of Harriot Wilson and Thomas Mann Randolph (1792-1848) of Tuckahoe, Goochland County, Virginia. Margaret's uncle, her father's half-brother who was also named Thomas Mann Randolph (1769-1828), lived at Edgehill in Albemarle County, Virginia; married Thomas Jefferson's daughter, Martha; and was governor of Virginia. He was more widely known than Margaret's father, but there are no papers of Governor Randolph in this collection.

Francis Asbury and Margaret Harvie Randolph Dickins had nine children. Five lived to maturity: Francis (Frank) Asbury, Jr. (1841-1890); Frances (Fanny) Margaret (1842-1914); Harriot Wilson (1844-1917); Thomas Mann Randolph (Randolph) (1853-1914); and Albert White (1855-1913).

During the Civil War, Ossian Hall was within U.S. Army lines, but the Dickins family were southern sympathizers. Francis Asbury was imprisoned three times on suspicion of aiding the South and ultimately left home to spend the final days of the war behind Confederate lines. Frank served in the Confederate army, and both daughters moved to Richmond during the war. Fanny was employed by the Confederate Treasury Department in 1862 at Richmond, and in 1863, she moved to Columbia, South Carolina, to work with a branch of the Confederate Treasury there.

After the Civil War, Francis Asbury Dickins returned to Ossian Hall and reopened his Washington law office. His sons, Frank and Albert, worked on railroads in the West. Randolph attended Virginia Military Institute and became a colonel in the Marine Corps. Harriot Wilson married Dr. Henry Theodore Wight and had two daughters. Fanny continued to live with her mother after the death of Frances Asbury in 1879. The two women left Ossian Hall and divided their time among family in Virginia, Washington, D.C., and New York.

Significant Randolph family correspondents in this collection include:

Gabriella Harvie Randolph Brockenbrough, second wife of Thomas Mann Randolph, grandmother of Margaret Randolph Dickins. Gabriella Randolph married Dr. John Brockenbrough of Richmond after the death of her first husband, and he served as guardian for her son. Her Randolph granddaughters frequently visited the Brockenbroughs in Richmond.

Margaret Harvie Randolph's siblings:

A. Children of Thomas Mann Randolph and his first wife, Harriot Wilson:

1. Mary Gabriella, who married Dr. John Biddle Chapman and had two daughters;

2. John Brockenbrough Randolph (1817-1854), who was first married to Elizabeth C. Smith and then to Margaret Rose Timberlake. Margaret Timberlake was the daughter of Peggy O'Neale and her first husband, John Bowie Timberlake. Family correspondence discusses the scandals associated with Peggy O'Neale in her later life; and

3. Harriot Wilson Randolph, who married Albert Smith White, U.S. representative and senator from Indiana.

B. Children of Thomas Mann Randolph and his second wife, Lucinda Ann Patterson:

1. Henry Patterson Randolph;

2. Allan Randolph;

3. Clara Haxall Randolph, who married William Key Howard;

4. Mary Louisa Randolph, who married George Washington Mayo;

5. Arthur Randolph; and

6. Jane DeHart Randolph, who married Robert Carter Harrison.

Series 1. Family Papers, 1729-1934 and Undated
Subseries 1.1: Correspondence and Related Papers, 1729-1934 and Undated
Subseries 1.1.1: 1729-1839. This subseries consists of papers of the Dickins and Randolph families before the marriage of Francis Asbury Dickins and Margaret Harvie Randolph. Letters to Margaret from Randolph relatives include information about family members, social activities in Richmond and Washington, and news about the Tuckahoe plantation in Goochland County, Virginia. Dickins family papers during this period chiefly document the government career of Asbury Dickins, including his brief sojourn to England during the first decade of the nineteenth century. Francis Asbury Dickins appears in 1830 as an agent for the U.S. Treasury Department. Letters document his early government service and his marriage to Margaret Harvie Randolph in April 1839. The earliest Dickins family papers relate to John Dickins (1747-1798), father of Asbury Dickins and grandfather of Francis Asbury Dickins. (See also Volume 34 for letters received by Asbury Dickins and Francis Asbury Dickins, 1818-1842.)

1729-1824: 1729, copy of the will of William Randolph. 1786, deed, Richard Burt to John Dickins, Halifax County, North Carolina. 1799, Asbury Dickins wrote for Elizabeth Dickins, from Philadelphia, asking Henry Bradford to sell the land near Halifax and settle the affairs of John Dickins. 1804-1813, papers accumulated by Asbury Dickins while residing in England. 1804, letters about the Society for the Suppression of Vice. 1811, Thomas Fox, Falmouth, about the difficulty of shipping between England and the United States. 1813, letter of introduction to a business firm in Havre. 1817, clipping of advertisement, Asbury Dickins wishing to sell an estate on the turnpike from Washington to Baltimore. 1822, Swett Harris, about the U.S. mission to Russia, Russia's efforts to mediate between the United States and England, and John Quincy Adams. 1823, Ben F. Bourne, letter of introduction to the Dickins family for Colonel Decatur. 1824, unsigned letter by a friend of William H. Crawford, on the presidential campaign. 1820s, letters to Margaret Randolph from relatives and friends in Richmond and vicinity and from relatives in Norfolk, sending family and social news. Letters from Margaret's father to her and a few from her to her father written while she was visiting his mother in Richmond and while visiting other relatives.

1825-1830: 1825, Aunt Eloisa Dickins from Baltimore, family news. A. W. Hamilton, customs collector at Pensacola, about a disagreement between him and Mr. Scott, son of Alexander Scott. 1826, Ferdinand R. Hassler about the U.S. Coast Survey. Edward Wyer, his projected trip to Russia, comment on Calhoun and Gallatin. 1828, land grant of John Forsyth, governor of Georgia. 1830, letters about Francis Asbury Dickins's trip to Nashville, Tennessee, as agent of the Treasury Department. S. D. Ingham, letter of introduction to Andrew Jackson. Letters from Mr. and Mrs. Asbury Dickins during this trip to France and his younger brother Tom, who accompanied him. Letter, 4 Sept 1830, referring to Asbury Dickins's brother, John, who died and was buried in Knoxville.

1831-1833: 1831, family letters written while Francis was on another trip to Cincinnati and Nashville. 1832, letter from Asbury Dickins on points involved in the trial of Thomas F. Hodson, which Francis was attending in Pennsylvania. 1833, William Lyman, Boston, about a claim the government had against the estate of his father and his efforts to get a settlement from his father's administrator. John S. Barbour, business with the Treasury, his candidacy for Congress. Aunt Eloisa, the Baltimore garden show, riding the railroad, family news. Asbury Dickins to his sons in New York. Letters from Thomas Mann Randolph to his daughter, Margaret, offering social advice and mentioning efforts to find a new home. Letters to Margaret from Frances Brockenbrough giving social and family news and describing her garden and a wedding.

1834-1835: 1834, statement of the position of the U.S. government on the action of the French Chamber of Deputies in refusing to implement the French treaty with the United States C. S. McCauley from Norfolk where he was attending a court martial, his desire to command the U.S. John Adams, news of Lilia. John C. Hamilton wanting the remaining volumes of American State Papers for his work on papers of Alexander Hamilton; his poor opinion of Jared Sparks. F. R. Hassler from Long Island, his hardships with the Coast Survey. Thomas Aspinwall, his business with the State Department. Family letters.

1836-1837: Continued letters to Margaret from her father and from Frances Brockenbrough. In 1836, Margaret visited General and Mrs. Alexander Hunter in Washington. Randolph wrote to her criticizing Van Buren and she wrote in return of social activities in the capital city. 1836, Francis Asbury Dickins to Lewis Cass, resigning his position in the War Department. Shea Smith, on instructions to U.S. consuls. Silas H. Hill, on Asbury Dickins's wish to be secretary of the Senate. John Forsyth, requesting Francis to investigate his claim to land from Virginia as heir of a Revolutionary veteran. Bond of Asbury Dickins as secretary of the Senate.

1838-1839: 1838, Hugo Dickins, working for the Coast Survey. Letters between Francis Asbury Dickins and Thomas Mann Randolph about his marriage to Margaret. Letters from Asbury Dickins to Francis while the latter was away from Washington. Letters indicate that Asbury was also away from the capital visiting Hugo while he worked with the Coast Survey, in New York and Philadelphia. He wrote of family news, purchasing articles in New York for Francis's and Margaret's home. Randolph family letters for 1838 include news of the death of two Randolph children. Thomas Mann Randolph visited Washington and wrote of plans to raise silk at Bellona; also, letter from young Henry Randolph from Mr. Sanders's school at Cartersville. 1839, draft of advertisement announcing opening of law office of Francis Asbury Dickins and his brother James, specializing in government claims. Family letters about the marriage of Margaret Randolph and Francis Asbury Dickins. Letters of Asbury Dickins, probably writing from Baltimore, of family news, business affairs, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company prospects, and projects related to iron manufacture.

Subseries 1.1.2: 1840-1859. This subseries consists of papers of Francis Asbury Dickins and his wife, Margaret. During this period, the couple moved to Ossian Hall in Fairfax County, Virginia, while Francis Asbury maintained a law office in Washington, D.C. Correspondence relates chiefly to family and plantation matters, including news from Randolph relatives. (See Series 2 for information about Dicken's legal practice during this period; see also Volume 34 for letters received by Asbury Dickins and Francis Asbury Dickins, 1818-1842.)

1840-1844: 1840, Mrs. Frances Brockenbrough. June 6, Mrs. Nathaniel (Rebecca Biddle) Chapman, sending John B. Chapman news of George W. Chapman and John Randolph, who were serving with the U.S. Mediterranean fleet. 22 December, John M. Bass about estate of
Felix Grundy. 1841, Mrs. F. Brockenbrough. 2 June, statement of F. B. Drane, Jr., and T. M. Randolph about the value of the Tuckahoe Aquaduct Mills, saw and grist mills, and a site for
an iron foundry; also by J. C. Sinton. 15 October, Randolph, family news and his business affairs, Francis's efforts to help him; also 15 October, McCauley, family news. 16 October, Hugo, in New Jersey with the Coast Survey. Letterpress copies of several letters from Francis
to Randolph, chiefly on business, very hard to read. 8 August 1842, Aunt E. Wingfield,
Norfolk, to Margaret, her hard life as a boarding house keeper, family news. 1842-1844, a number of letters from Randolph on his affairs and his argument over property with his mother and her husband, Dr. Brokenbrough; also advice to Francis on farming at Ossian Hall. 2 October 1843, Mrs. A. M. Fitzhugh inviting Margaret to visit and mentioning Mrs. Lee. (This is Mrs. William Henry [A. Maria Goldsborough] Fitzhugh, a childless widow who lived at the Fitzhugh home, Ravensworth, near Ossian Hall, and in Alexandria during the winter. Her husband was
the uncle of Mrs. Robert E. Lee and Ravensworth passed to one of Mrs. Lee's sons, W. H. F. Lee, after the widow's death. Mrs. Fitzhugh herself seems to have been very close to all the
Lees, including Smith Lee and his son, Fitzhugh. This is the first of many letters and notes
from her.)

1845-1846: More letters between Randolph and Dickins, on Randolph's financial difficulties. 1 March 1845, Randolph wrote of his hope to inherit money from the estates of
John Randolph and St. George Randolph. He also advised Francis on the handling of slaves and agricultural methods. 13 November, J. R. Ingersoll to Asbury Dickins. Augusta, loving letter to Margaret. J. W. French, minister in Washington, to Margaret about her spiritual state. (Francis and Margaret Dickins and their children seem to have lived in Washington during the winter months.)

1847-1850: 1847, 17 January, Mr. A. M. Fitzhugh about services at the little Episcopal church at Annandale. Continued letters from Randolph on his affairs. 23 May, James Barron,
St. [Ann], Norfolk County, his farming operations, his claims at Richmond. Louisa Brockenbrough, daughter of Austin and Frances, sends news of her family. 7 October, Mrs.
M. A. T. Thompson, family and household affairs in Washington. Letters about the death of Randolph in March 1848, about the settlement of his affairs, and about the purchase of two elderly slaves for ten dollars. 1849, 4 February, Henry Randolph wrote of his plans to go to California in search of gold, and 26 May, his wife Louisa wrote of his trip across the
Isthmus of Panama. 9 and 29 August, Margaret to Francis, her sadness following the
accidental death of their daughter, Mary. October, Willie P. Mangum to Asbury, asking to
borrow fifty dollars. 24 December, J. W. French. 1849, 12 October, cousin Emma Randolph, letter of sympathy, also September 1850. Several notes from M. A. T. Thompson (probably Mrs. G. L.), Washington and Meridian Hall, Maryland, her family and servants, etc.

1851-1859: 1852, Henry P. Randolph, J. W. French, Dr. H. F. Condict, relatives. 1854, H. P. Randolph about death of John B. Randolph. 1855, a cousin recommends a nursery governess; Smith Thompson, C. J. Ingersoll; J. R. Ingersoll. 1856, Margaret's stepmother, Lucy Patterson Randolph; C. J. Ingersoll (several); J. R. Ingersoll; Mrs. M. A. T. Thompson on her new home in Maryland, and her son, Dorsey, a student at St. John's College; Ellen Harvie from Richmond. 1857, Mrs. Thompson, C. J. Ingersoll, J. M. Mason, J. R. Ingersoll, commission of Edward A. Dickens (not identified) as captain in Virginia militia; Mrs. Frances Brockenbrough. 1858, 12 January, copy, Francis to Albert S. White, the estate of St. George Randolph and the chances of their wives inheriting from it; Mrs. Thompson; Mrs. Brockenbrough. 1859, H. P. Randolph, his broken leg and its treatment, wants information on Dansas, where he may move to practice law; J. M. Mason, trustee; 9 June, F. A. Dickins to H. P. Randolph, has received the deed, business matters, marriage of Mrs. Eaton to a 22-year-old Italian dancing master (Mrs. Eaton [Peggy O'Neale] was the mother-in-law of John Brockenbrough Randolph and had custody of his orphaned minor children. The matter of the trusteeship and deed may have related to these children.) Also in 1859, several notes from Smith Thompson, who is unable to pay his debt to F. A. Dickins. 27 August 1859, Margaret (O'Neale) Timberlake Eaton Buchignani, bitter letter to Margaret (Randolph) Dickins about the children of John B. Randolph, defending herself and her husband from criticism. Louis E. Harvie, a cousin, two letters in September about the Randolph children and efforts to remove them from Mrs. Buchignani's care and about the trusteeship of money left to the children by his aunt, probably Mrs. Gabriella (Harvie) Randolph Brockenbrough; also news of his family. December 1859, C. J. Ingersoll.

Subseries 1.1.3. 1860-1865. This subseries consists of papers documenting the Confederate sympathies of the Dickins family in the Civil War. According to family correspondence, Francis Asbury was first arrested in 1861, on the day his father, Asbury Dickins, died. He was subsequently imprisoned two more times for his suspected assistance to the Confederacy before moving behind Confederate lines. Letters document Fanny M. Dickins's work with the Confederate Treasury in Richmond, Virginia, and Columbia, South Carolina, and the service of Frank in the Confederate Army. Margaret spent the early part of the war at Ossian Hall and wrote her daughters in Richmond about her experience when Union soldiers searched the house and grounds in 1862.

1860-September 1861: Mrs. A. M. Fitzhugh, Alexandria, Lenten services there, the weather, news of Robert E. Lee and his family. 21 March, J. M. Mason. 5 August, Mrs. Thompson, her son Dorsey valedictorian at St. John's, her other sons. S. L. R., probably Mrs. William Beverly (Sarah Lingan) Randolph, thinks if South Carolina will behave, the United States will be well governed. January 1861, Mrs. Fitzhugh deplores the movement for secession. April, a Virginian who was a clerk in the office of the secretary of the Senate sends his resignation to Asbury Dickins. May, several passes for Francis A. Dickins to enter and leave Washington. 13 June, letter from him to his wife, telling of his imprisonment and asking her to write to General Winfield S. Scott and Albert S. White for him.

October-December 1861: More papers related to Francis A. Dickins's imprisonment, his efforts to secure protection for his wife and small children while he was away from home, his efforts to recover some horses taken from his plantation and to secure passes to go back and forth between his home and his office in Washington. Asbury Dickins died the day Francis was arrested and Francis was paroled in order to attend the funeral. Margaret's brother-in-law, Albert Smith White, Republican senator from Indiana, helped to procure his release. Also, some rather confused and repetitious diary-like notes and reminiscences of this event on loose sheets of paper. In this same folder, some undated papers of the Civil War period.

1862: 5 February, A. S. White telling Margaret that Francis has again been arrested, he will try to help. Copy of letter from White to General George R. McClellan, with McClellan's reply, 8 and 16 February, Margaret to her daughters, who were in or near Richmond, about her experiences when U.S. soldiers searched her house. Continued letters from White about Dickins's situation. 13 March, Louis E. Harvie on letterhead of the president of the Richmond and Danville Railroad telling Francis A. Dickins, Jr. in the Confederate hospital Belleview of arrangements to move him to another hospital and eventually to Harvie's home. 21 March, F. A. Dickins's parole. List of prisoners who were in Room 11, Old Capitol Prison, while Dickins was there. Letters pertaining to Dickins's efforts to secure punishment for soldiers who visited his plantation and to recover property taken. 10 August, White saying he cannot prevent spoilation of Dickins's property unless he will take the oath of allegiance. 4 December, notice from C. G. Memminger that Fanny M. Dickins has been employed by the Confederate Treasury Department.

1863-1865: 18 March, no year, Mrs. Clara H. (Randolph) Howard, her experiences in going from Virginia to Maryland, her escape from U.S. officers, hiding because of a warrant for her arrest, news of Fanny, Harriot, and Frank Dickins in Virginia. 15 June 1863, record of emancipation and permit to remain in Richmond of a slave formerly the property of G. R. de Potestad, cousin of Margaret. Papers dealing with the move of Fanny Dickins to Columbia, South Carolina, to work with the branch of the Confederate Treasury there. 16 November 1864, General Philip Sheridan to General Jubal A. Early, explaining that he is permitting Misses Riley and Dickins to pass through his lines on the way South with the body of Capt. [Irving] Harvie. 21 and 22 November, note and pass for Fanny from Early, referring to injury of Frank. 29 November, letter asking aid for Fanny in her effort to find her brother and take him with her. 26 December, Mrs. L. V. Robertson, Rock Hill, South Carolina, wanting information about her brother, whom she thinks Fanny saw while she was within U.S. lines. Undated, a batch of notes by Mrs. A. M. Fitzhugh to Margaret (Randolph) Dickins during the war period and some undated papers written by Francis A. Dickins after he left home, one about his visit to Wilmington and to some of his relatives in North Carolina stating that the papers give a false picture of the spirit of the southern people, who are still determined to continue the war. March, May 1865, oaths of allegiance and amnesty of F. A. Dickins. 12 April, W. I. [Rain or Rasin?] about the death of Willie Price to W. F. Price, Richmond (these persons not identified).

Subseries 1.1.4: 1866-1879. This subseries consists chiefly of papers of the children of Francis Asbury Dickins and Margaret Harvie Randolph Dickins. Letters show that Randolph Dickins attended Virginia Military Institute and was commissioned a colonel in the U.S. Marine Corps. Frank worked with a railroad survey party in western Pennsylvania in 1872. A few letters from Albert White indicate that he worked briefly with his elder brother on the railroad, but by 1879, he was seeking employment in Cincinnati, Ohio. Letters from Harriot Dickins Wight document her domestic life. Francis Asbury reopened his Washington law office following the Civil War, but few papers document his activities during this period. He died in 1879.

1866-1869: Letter from Mrs. Fitzhugh, from Baltimore, 12 January 1866, news of Mrs. R. E. Lee and her family. March 6, Mrs. Frances Brockenbrough, news of her family and relatives. Letters relating to efforts to secure an appointment at Virginia Military Institute as a state cadet for Randolph Dickins, from W. B. Blair. Invitation to wedding of H. Theodore Wight and Harriot Dickins. 1867--Mrs. Fitzhugh, from Alexandria; Betty Brockenbrough about the death of her mother, Frances. 12 January, Mrs. M. A. T. Thompson describing the wedding of her
son, Dorsey, to Mary Ligon, daughter of former governor of Maryland, Thomas Watkins Ligon. Reports of Albert W. Dickins at the school of T. C. Miller, Amherst, Virginia. 8 February 1868, Mrs. Fitzhugh from Alexandria. More letters about efforts to get an appointment as state cadet for Randolph, including one from his state senator, D. French Dulany. 16 June, Francis H.
Smith telling what the school can do to aid Randolph. 17 June, W. H. Richardson, 5 July, W. B. Blair, same subject. 11 October, Thomas C. Miller about his school at Amherst (Forest Academy). 23 December, cousin Lucy Chrisman, from near Harrisonburg, saying she has better servants than ever before, telling of the care of soldiers' graves, and referring to Generals Imbeden and Early. Reports of Albert at Miller's school. 9 June 1869, Cousin Ellen S. (Harvie) Ruffin (Mrs. Frank Gildart) from Summer Hill, servant problem, long commend on Fields Cook, Negro leader in Richmond, whom she had known well before the war, her husband attending
the test of a reaper. July, Jean C. W. Yeatman, telling of death of Captain Smith Lee, Fitzhugh Lee's coming to Ravensworth to tell Mrs. Fitzhugh of it, her terrible shock, plans for the
funeral. 27 July, Gabriella (Chapman) de Potestad, death of Smith Lee, sorrow for Mrs. Fitzhugh, illness of Harriot Wight's husband, humiliation of being connected with Peggy (O'Neale) Eaton Buchignani. 3 August, part of a copy of a letter from F. A. Dickins to members of the Reid family in England, relatives of the Arnot family. Emily Chapman about the death of Harriot's baby.

1870-1872: Papers dealing with the attendance of the Dickins sons at Consolidated Business College in Washington. 14 August 1870, Emily Chapman, from Georgetown about efforts to get an appointment at Annapolis for Randolph, to raise the money necessary for his uniforms, etc. W. W. Glenn saying he will lend part of the money, even though as a southerner he disapproves of Randolph's wish to go to Annapolis. September, Eloise [Baker] thinks people of Baltimore more antagonistic to northerners than people from the seceding states, tells of how people from Baltimore shunned W. T. Sherman at Berkeley Springs. Eloise and Emily sympathize when Randolph failed the exams for Annapolis. 6 October, testimonial for Randolph's work at the business college, by J. Ormand Wilson, Superintendent of Public Schools. 27 November, Emily Chapman says her brother-in-law, Luis de Potestad-Fornari, had gone to assist at the wedding of the Spanish minister. 1 June 1871, program of graduating exercises for Washington Business College, Randolph one of the graduates. 22 June, W. S. Scott, who formerly lived at Ossian, writing from England, wanting information about Ossian. 7 January 1872, Francis A. Dickins, Jr., from western Pennsylvania, where he is to begin work with a railroad survey party, on a line that he referred to as the Wheeling, Pittsburgh, and Baltimore, a branch of the Baltimore and Ohio. The letters from Frank about his work contain frequent references to Colonel Samuel Johnston, who was head of the survey party, and occasional references to a cousin, James Lingan Randolph, who was chief engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio. Letters between Thomas H. Upshur and F. A. Dickins, 1 February, 22 February, 20 March, about an estate for which Abel P. Upshur was executor that had never been settled, Henry A. Wishe about it, 16 March (enclosed with letter of 20 March), and Dickins to George P. Scarborough about it, 26 June. Continued letters this year from Frank with the survey party, and a few from Albert, who also worked with the group for a short time. Frank's letters referred to "Cousin Sally," who was Mrs. William Beverly (Sarah Lingan) Randolph of Martinsburg, West Virginia, mother of James L. Randolph, and strongly unionist in feeling. In June, she wrote Frank an indignant letter critizing Greeley and defending Grant from remarks she had misread into a letter from him. Letters from Frank with survey party end in December 1872, and there are no more letters from him.

1873-1879: 2 February 1873, Lucy A. Randolph to her stepdaughter, Margaret (Randolph) Dickins, family news. Mrs. H. (Brockenbrough) Nelson, daughter of the Austin Brockenbroughs, news of her family. 27 June, Emily Chapman, references to her cousin, Tom Biddle, to her hopes for Randolph who is at Virginia Military Institute, family news. July, invitation to the graduation ball at V.M I. 14 July, Emily Chapman, sending money for Randolph. 11 August, Ellen (Mrs. Frank Gildart) Ruffin, telling of arson on their plantation, Summer Hill. Invitation to the wedding of the daughter of W. T. Sherman. Voting records, U.S. Senate, 1874-75, perhaps related to some claim in which F. A. Dickins was interested. [20?] January 1875, a cousin of Mrs. Fitzhugh about a relative in a mental institution, W. H. F. (Rooney) Lee's moving to Ravensworth, her memories of him and his wife. 1 February, Mrs. Ruffin, more fires at Summer Hill have forced them to move to Richmond. 2 July, letter from a missionary in Hangchow, China, giving an account of living conditions, food, climate, mail service, a visit to a temple--appears to be a copy made by Fanny Dickins. 25 January 1876, Randolph Dickins applies for a commission in the Marine Corps; copies of recommendations for him by W. Hunter and Montgomery Blair. 30 December 1877, Margaret to Francis, is visiting Harriot. 8 October 1878, Randolph Dickins, to "Miss Mary," as he is about to sail for China. 11 April 1879, J. W. Stevenson, childhood friend of Margaret, will try to help Albert, who is seeking work in Cincinnati. 19 November, J. B. Kershaw to Fanny, letter of sympathy on death of Francis A. Dickins.

Subseries 1.1.5: 1880-1934 and Undated. This subseries consists chiefly of papers of Margaret Dickins and her daughters. Fanny and her mother lived with relatives in Baltimore
until Margaret died in 1891. Letters document the women's financial concerns, family travel abroad, and genealogical interests. A few letters from the Dickins sons indicate that Albert
found work with the Yellowstone Division of North Pacific Railroad and bought an interest in
a restaurant in Billings, Montana. Randolph Dickins served on the U.S.S. Oregon during the Spanish American War.

1880-1884: George W. Mayo, husband of Margaret's younger half-sister, Louisa, from Richmond about a tombstone; Louisa about her mother, family news, the tombstone. 15 December 1880 and 21 April 1882, M. N. Reid, a cousin in Dunfermline, Scotland. 25 December, Albert Dickins, working with the Yellowstone Division of the Northern Pacific Railroad, has bought an interest in a restaurant in Billings, Montana, commend on Ed Rosser, cousin of General T. L. Rosser, also working on the railroad. Notes of Margaret about her husband's journal, with an account of his dream of an accident, telling how he later suffered a similar accident that resulted in his death. 19 December 1883, recommendations to Woman's Exchange in Washington for Evelina Synder. 25 February 1884, Mrs. Upton [S.C.] Herbert, news of Fitzhughs and Lees, probably from near Ossian Hall. 17 January, Cousin Jessie Reid from London, the Arnot family. Travel souvenirs from London, Belgium, Alaska, perhaps collected by Lt. Randolph Dickins; also brief notes on travel by an unidentified woman.

1885-1888: 8 April 1885, Gabriella (Chapman) de Potestad-Fornari, thanks for copy of miniature of her grandmother, family news, sorry Fanny can't get work in Washington, their "unfortunate" Randolph relatives, probably the grandchildren of Mrs. Eaton. 10 October, M. N. Reid, Dunfermline, Scotland. More souvenirs of Randolph Dickins. 4 July 1886, Fanny tells of a trip to Baltimore by boat, probably from Richmond, describing the boat and the houses she saw on the way down the river and up the Chesapeake. 16 July, Sara Morril from Paris on her travels in Europe. April-October 1887, extracts or copies of letters from Mrs. Harriot (Dickins) Wight, who was visiting England with her daughter, Theodora, to Fanny who was ill at Church Home in Baltimore. 1 August 1888, "M" from London, sightseeing. 8 August, John M. Wilson asks Randolph to assist with seating of assemblage at funeral of General Sheridan. 17 October, another travel account, Bessie Graeff.

1889-1890: John W. Burke to Fanny at Church Home, business, family news, and letter by her from there. In 1890, several brief business letters to her in Richmond. Samuel Wallis, Pohick Church Rectory, his marriage, the church, Mrs. Upton Herbert, death of Fanny's brother, Frank.

1891-1893: Letters of sympathy for death of Margaret (Randolph) Dickins in early 1891. More on Fanny's finances. Letters and papers about repair of the cemetery at Tuckahoe. Mrs. Herbert about Pohick Church, and 17 February 1892, about memorial windows in it for Fanny's parents, neighborhood news. Several letters from Miss Mary W. Pulliam in Asheville on her descent from the Wilsons of Virginia, who were also among Fanny's ancestors, refers to her visiting Miss Emily Lee in the hospital. 5 January 1893, William Page Dabney, history of Randolph family and connections. 27 February, Randolph Harrison, can't send information on Nicholas Davies. 24 April, Martha Jefferson (Trist) Burke, her husband's illness, the repairs to the cemetery. 31 December, Moncure D. Conway is in England lecturing, still has the papers he borrowed from Asheville. Mrs. Peter (S. C.) Minor, account of wedding of her niece, Mary Peyton, and William C. Chamberlain.

1894-1898: Correspondence about the Page tombs at Rosewell and the Randolph ones at Turkey Island. 11 February 1897, Grant Green sending the miniature of Gabriella (Harvie) Randolph Brockenbrough. 18 July 1897, Wilson Miles Cary saying the wife of Thomas Randolph of Tuckahoe was Judith Fleming and not Judith Churchill. May-August 1898, series of letters written by Randolph Dickins, Marine officer on the U.S.S. Oregon, first at Brazil, then off Cuba, about naval action in the Spanish-American War, to members of his family whom he called by nicknames; hard to identify. These are probably copies made by Fanny Dickins.

1899-1934: Chiefly scattered letters about Randolph and related families. Letter to Mrs. Harriot W. Wight about legacy to her from Miss Eloise Baker. 1901, two more letters from Miss Pulliam in Asheville, referring to Alexander Webb, to summer boarders. June, Jessie Reid, London, on Arnot family. 1902, R. H. Battle saying the statute of limitations would bar any old claim the Dickins family might have to land in North Carolina. Only a few scattered trivial items after this. During these years, Fanny Dickins and Mrs. Wight were living in Washington. The last letter is to Theodora Wight (Mrs. John) Keim, about the wives of Thomas Randolph (Churchill or Fleming?).

Undated, letters, arranged alphabetically by writer. Chiefly to Margaret Dickins about women's affairs and other matters, family and social communications.

Subseries 1.2: Other Family Papers, 1823-1899 and Undated This subseries consists of genealogical materials compiled by Margaret Dickins and her daughter, Fanny. Besides family history materials, there are menus, calling cards, souvenirs, remedies, newspaper clippings, bills, receipts, and miscellaneous items collected by various Dickins family members.

Genealogical material, notes, copies of records and anecdotes are overlapping, disorganized, and very confusing for others to use. Folder 25 contains two notebooks compiled by Margaret Randolph Dickins and Fanny Dickins, with notes on Randolph, Page, Jones, Harvie, Wilson, Wormley, and Churchill families. Folder 26 contains loose papers with notes on Randolph, Harvie, Jones, Fleming, and Churchill families. Folder 27 contains more loose pages of notes
on Randolph, Harvie, and Jones families and also notes on Francis Asbury Dickins's
ancestry--Yancey, Kimbrough, Dickins, and Arnot families. Also a sketch of Francis A. Dickins, Jr. (brief one-page item).

Menus, calling cards, invitations and a few replies, souvenirs.

A large folded survey sheet, for a lesson in surveying, probably for an area of the Potomac River near Alexandria.

Miscellaneous materials--remedies, literary excerpts, writings.

Bills and receipts.

Clippings about relatives and friends, chiefly from Virginia.

Contains whole newspapers. An issue of the North China Daily News (Shanghai) in 1879; an issue of the Dunfermline (Scotland) Journal, 1874; The Free Press (Burlington, Vermont), 10 April 1857, containing an advertisement related to the estate of C. P. Van Ness; and the Richmond Enquirer, 8 May 1857, and the Weekly American Organ (Washington), 14 May 1857, both containing articles on Virginia bounty land claims.

Clippings related to Randolph Dickins's service in the Marines, naval activities, the Spanish-American War, the U.S.S. Oregon, etc.

Material pertaining to a claim of Asbury Dickins against the United States for additional, higher compensation during the periods when he served as acting Secretary of the Treasury and acting Secretary of State. See also Volume 46 in Legal Volumes, not included.

Miscellaneous charts and diagrams.

Subseries 1.3: Volumes, 1804-1903 and Undated This subseries is arranged by type of volume including diaries, account books, commonplace books, scrapbooks, school notebooks, and other collected materials, such as genealogical information, cures, and songs.

Subseries 1.3.1: Diaries, 1826-1896

Volume 1. 1826? Travel diary. Author unidentified. Record of trip by horseback from Washington through Virginia and Tennessee to Alabama, visiting Choctaw and Chickasaw territory. Chiefly lists places stopped and number of miles covered. (formerly Volume 40)

Volume 2. 1831? Very brief diary kept by Francis Asbury Dickins during trip from Washington with his mother, his sisters, Lilia and Maria, and his brother, James, to Leesburg, Virginia, and a place near Harper's Ferry. (formerly Volume 47)

Volume 3. 1833. Brief travel diary kept by Francis Asbury Dickins documenting a family trip to Baltimore (where they witnessed a balloon ascension), Philadelphia, and New York (where they attended the theater and saw Mr. Kemble perform; Henry Clay also attended and was cheered by the audience). (formerly Volume 48)

Volume 4. 1861-1864. Notes and diary of Francis Asbury and Margaret Randolph Dickins about his imprisonment in Washington and events following their retreat to Richmond and North Carolina. (formerly Volume 29)

Volume 5. 1871-1875. Short entries made by Margaret Randolph Dickins about family events. (formerly Volume 31)

Volume 6. 1879. Travel diary kept by Randolph Dickins on voyage to Europe, India, and China; copied by Fanny M. Dickins. (formerly Volume 34)

Volume 7. 1888. Diary kept by Margaret Randolph Dickins while in Washington with her son, Randolph, a U.S. Marine officer. During this year, he was ill in the Naval Hospital. (formerly Volume 37)

Volume 8. 1886-1890. Kept by Fanny M. Dickins during a period when she was living mostly in Richmond with her mother and sister. She also recorded periodic visits to Baltimore, England, and Florida. (formerly Volume 39)

Volume 9. 1895-1896. Apparently kept by Fanny M. Dickins while living with Randolph Dickins at the Brooklyn Navy Yard. (formerly Volume 35)

Subseries 1.3.2: Account Books, 1763-1891

Volume 10. 1763-1765. Ledger of general merchandise and a blacksmith shop. Author unknown. Includes names of Randolph family members. The volume was reused as a scrapbook, and newspaper clippings, pictures, and other items are pasted over some of the pages. (formerly Volume 1)

Volume 11. 1818-1821. Household account book kept by Harriot Randolph at Tuckahoe in Goochland County, Virginia. (formerly Volume 4)

Volume 12. 1822. Household accounts of Hariot Randolph at Tuckahoe, Goochland County, Virginia. (formerly Volume 6)

Volume 13. 1838-1839. Personal account book of Francis Asbury Dickins, with some travel and household expenses, including wedding trip in 1839 to Raleigh. (formerly Volume 18)

Volume 14. 1839-1856. Household accounts of Francis Asbury Dickins and his wife, Margaret, at Ossian Hall and in Washington; also includes entries related to Dickins's law practice. (formerly Volume 20)

Volume 15. 1856-1859. Day book of Francis Asbury Dickins showing household expenses. (formerly Volume 25)

Volume 16. 1856-1863. Accounts for provisions furnished Thomas Kearns, overseer. (formerly Volume 26)

Volume 17. 1891. Bank book of Fanny M. Dickins, National Bank of Virginia in Richmond. Also used for miscellaneous accounts and notes. (formerly volume 49) See also Volume 44, Subseries 2.4. [not included].

Subseries 1.3.3: Commonplace Books, 1835-1878 and Undated

Volume 18. 1835-1867. Commonplace book of Margaret Randolph Dickins. (formerly Volume 12)

Volume 19. ca. 1858. Commonplace book of Margaret Randolph Dickins, including genealogies of the Strother, Harvie, and Jones families. (formerly Volume 17)

Volume 20. 1866-1878. Commonplace book of Harriot W. Dickins. (formerly Volume 30)

Volume 21. Undated. Collector unidentified; also contains math notes entitled "Luis de Potestad, Jr.--Lawrence Scientific School--Notes and Problems," and a few recipes. (formerly Volume 38)

Subseries 1.3.4: Scrapbooks, 1819-1903 and Undated

Volume 22. ca. 1819. Clippings from newpapers, chiefly poetry, pasted in Merchants and Travellers Companion, published in 1819. (formerly Volume 19)

Volume 23. 1849-1874. Newspaper clippings pasted over pages of a book originally used for official records by a purser in the U.S. Navy. (formerly Volume 22)

Volume 24. 1875-1883. Scrapbook of Margaret Randolph Dickins containing newspaper clippings, chiefly poetry and writings, but also a few obituaries of friends. (formerly Volume 32)

Volume 25. 1861-1865. Collection of Civil War passes issued to members of the Dickins family. (formerly Volume 28)

Volume 26. 1853-1903. Newspaper clippings pasted over pages of a book that originally contained a list of letters received by Francis Asbury Dickins relating to legal claims he was handling. (formerly Volume 33)

Volume 27. Undated. Miscellaneous material including drawings, photographs, and genealogical information about the Arnot family of Scotland. (formerly Volume 36)

Subseries 1.3.5: School Notebooks, 1827 and Undated

Volume 28. 1827. Latin exercise book of Francis Asbury Dickins, Washington, D.C., "Commenced with Hugh Maguire." (formerly Volume 8)

Volume 29. Undated. Math notebook of Mary W. Randolph. (formerly Volume 7)

Volume 30. Undated. Small handmade booklet on trigonometry. (formerly Volume 41)

Volume 31. Undated. Teacher's grade book kept by the governess of Francis Asbury Dickins's children--Mary, Frances, Francis, Jr., and Harriot. (formerly Volume 43)

Volume 32. Undated. Drawing lessons of Margaret H. Dickins. (formerly Volume 13)

Volume 33. Undated. Drawing lessons of Margaret H. Dickins. (formerly Volume 14) See also Volume 21.

Subseries 1.3.6: Other Volumes, 1804-1874 and Undated

Volume 34. 1818-1842. Letters received by Asbury Dickins and Francis Asbury Dickins, pasted into a book about cavalry equipment. (formerly Volume 5)

Volume 35. 1804-1851. Deeds, plats, and survey notes relating to Ossian Hall, Fairfax County, Virginia, owned by Fitzhughs and Stuarts before its acquisition by Francis Asbury Dickins. Also contained in this volume are U.S. Navy quartermaster's accounts, probably kept by John L. Jones, purser on U.S.S. Savannah and U.S.S. Decatur. Deeds and plats are pasted over some of the pages containing these accounts. (formerly Volume 3)

Volume 36. 1840-1864. Genealogical information compiled by Fanny M. Dickins. See also Volumes 21 and 30. (formerly Volume 24)

Volume 37. 1845-1873. Chiefly recipes, also contains diary-like entries, household accounts, and inventories for Ossian Hall. (formerly Volume 21)

Volume 38. Undated. Cures and prescriptions, collector unknown. (formerly Volume 44)

Volume 39. Undated. Cures and prescriptions collected by Fanny M. Dickins. (formerly Volume 45)

Volume 40. Undated. Songs and poems of the Confederacy, words only, collector unknown. (formerly Volume 46)

Volume 41. Undated. Small handmade booklet containing lists of the officers of a few Civil War military units, author unknown. (formerly Volume 42)

Series 3. Pictures, 1870-1878 and Undated This series includes pictures of forty subjects numbered below.
1 Biddle, Sarah. As a young girl, daughter of Tom Biddle of Philadelphia, cousin of the Chapmans, and U.S. diplomat.

2 Boyden, Mary Sheffey and Eleanor. Daughters of Rev. P. M. Boyden. January 1878.

3 [Chapman?], Emily. To John, Lucca, Italy. 1873.

4 Dickins children: Fanny (Frances Margaret), T. M. Randolph, and Albert White. 1870.

5 Franklin children: Fanny (age 5) and Bessie (age 3). Children of Butler and Lynn Franklin, American Consulate, Amoy, China.

6 Flyer, S. A. Rector of Cornhill, Northumberland, England, and an Arnot family connection.

7 Howard, Charles. Baltimore, photograph of a painting.

8 Magruder, Ida. Georgetown, D.C., young woman.

9 Mayo, Louis (or Lewis) Randolph (age 8). Son of George Washington and Mary Louisa Randolph Mayo. 1889.

10 Morrill, Sarah. Alexandria, Virginia. 1878.

11 Nelson, Kate. Charlottesville, Virginia.

12 Perkins, Sarah (neé Thompson).

13 Pignatelli d'Aragon, José. Husband of Emily Chapman, who was a cousin
of Margaret Randolph Dickins.

14 Randolph, John Allan. Identity uncertain, but perhaps the younger half-brother
of Margaret Randolph Dickins, usually identified only as Allan.

15 Randolph, John Brockenbrough. Brother of Margaret Randolph Dickins, black
paper silhouette.

16 No picture.

17 Thompson, Leila. Woodlawn, Maryland. 1874.

18 Thompson, Mary Ann T. (neé Dorsey). Woodlawn, Maryland. 1874.

19 Tompkins, Hannah Minthorne (Mrs. Daniel D.). Wife of vice-president.

20 Upshur, John B.

21-23 Unidentified photographs of a woman, a castle, and a nearly completed steamboat, probably a Navy vessel on which Randolph Dickins served as a Marine officer.

24 Randolph, William Beverly.

25 Randolph, Sarah (Sally) Lingan.

26 Randolph, James Lingan. Chief engineer of the B & O Railroad.

27 Randolph, Emily Strother.

28 Randolph, Beverly Strother.

29 Randolph, Edmund Strother.

30 Randolph, Lingan Strother.

31 Watson, Mary B. Codwise. Wife of Major Malbone F. Watson.

32 Watson, M. (Lieutenant).

33 Codwise, Jane Randolph (Jennie). Granddaughter of Elizabeth Calvert (see picture 40). Tintype.

34 Randolph, William Moray. Son of Elizabeth Calvert (picture 40).

35 Stark, Emma Beverly Randolph. Daughter of Elizabeth Calvert (picture 40) and wife of Henry Stark (picture 36).

36 Stark, Henry.

37 Randolph, Cornelia Patterson. Daughter of Elizabeth Calvert (picture 40).

38 Turner, Mary Meade Randolph. Daughter of Elizabeth Calvert (picture 40) and wife of W. W. Turner.

39 Pickett, Harriet Isabell Randolph. Daughter of Elizabeth Calvert (picture 40) and wife of John A. Pickett.

40 Calvert, Elizabeth Gibbon Randolph. Wife of Washington Custis Calvert.


A list of omissions from the Francis Asbury Dickins Papers is provided on Reel 18, Frame 0626 and includes Series 2, Law Office Papers, 1820s-1870s.

Hubard Family Papers, 1866-1953,
Buckingham County, Virginia; also Maryland

Description of the Collection
This large collection of manuscript material centers around the family of Edmund Wilcox Hubard (1806-1878) of Saratoga Plantation, Buckingham County, Virginia, a planter, state legislator, militia officer, and member of Congress, 1841-1847. It includes papers, business and personal, of his forebears, relatives, friends, descendants, and business associates. Localities important in these papers are Albemarle, Amherst, Gloucester, Middlesex, Nelson, and other counties in Virginia, as well as Richmond and Washington, D.C.; Halifax County and other places in North Carolina; and various places in Tennessee and Florida.

Topics include the cultivation of tobacco, cotton, and wheat, as well as other phases of plantation life. There is extensive documentation of slavery and free blacks. There is also documentation relating to the legal and medical professions, including college notes and fee books. There are many references to social life in Virginia and North Carolina. The few
military papers relate to the Revolutionary War, the Civil War, and offices and affairs of the Virginia militia.

Throughout the collection, there are references to politics--local, state, and national; many of the persons involved in the papers having either taken part in campaigns, conventions, elections, or actually held office. There are also many papers dealing with money transactions--bills and receipts, personal notes, deeds and mortgages, land sales, wills, and settlements of estates and related lawsuits.

In addition to Hubard family papers, there are also scattered papers of a number of related families, including Bolling, Hubard, Jefferson, Jones, Littlejohn, Eppes, Moseley, Page, Randolph, Thruston, Thweatt, Wilcox, and Williamson.

The collection is arranged as follows:

Series 1. Correspondence, Financial/Legal Material, and Other Loose Papers--Subseries 1.1: 1741-1770, Subseries 1.2: 1771-1784, Subseries 1.3: 1785-1807, Subseries 1.4: 1808-1817, Subseries 1.5: 1818-1827, Subseries 1.6: 1828-1833, Subseries 1.7: 1834-1842, Subseries 1.8: 1843-1853, Subseries 1.9: 1854-1860, Subseries 1.10: 1861-1865 [all not included]; Subseries 1.11: 1866-1872, Subseries 1.12: 1873-1880, Subseries 1.13: 1881-1953, and Subseries 1.14: Undated (Subseries 1.14.1: Edmund Wilcox Papers, 1700s [not included], Subseries 1.14.2: Edmund Wilcox Hubard Papers, 1840s [not included], Subseries 1.14.3: Susan Hubard Crow, Subseries 1.14.4: Papers of Other Family Members before 1865 [not included], and Subseries 1.14.5: Miscellaneous Undated Papers [not included]); Series 2. Volumes--Subseries 2.1:
1752-1865 [not included], Subseries 2.2: 1866-1894, Subseries 2.3: 1875-1892, E. W. Hubard Law Notes [not included], and Subseries 2.4: Undated Volumes [not included]; and Series 3. Pictures, 1869.

Biographical Note
The bulk of these papers concern members of the Hubard family who, at one time or another, resided at Saratoga, a plantation in Buckingham County, Virginia. Letters to the Hubards were often addressed to them at Saratoga and nearby locations, such as Buckingham Court House, Curdsville, May Brook, Mill Brook (also Millbrook), and Ca Ira (also Caira), which was a milling and shipping point on the Willis River, a tributary of the James River. Hubard family members included Edmund Wilcox Hubard (1806-1878), Robert Thruston Hubard (1808-1871), and Louisiana Hubard (d. 1832?). Related Eppes family members resided in Halifax County, North Carolina. They owned at least two homesteads or plantations, referred to (with variations in spelling) as the Grove Farm and the Wyche Farm. The genealogical charts below give further information on Hubard family members and their relatives. A name index to the charts appears after the charts. [Charts unavailable online]

Series 1. Correspondence, Financial/Legal Material, and Other Loose Papers, 1741-1953 and Undated
Subseries 1.11. 1866-1872 Much of the correspondence immediately following the Civil War dealt with hard times, plans for making a living, and contracts with freedmen to work on the plantations and as house servants. Edmund Wilcox Hubard had hides cured by other persons on shares, kept up the Saratoga Home School at his house, and in 1866, took Sarah A. Eppes Hubard's aunt, Matilda Eppes Spooner, to board. His financial condition, however, like those of many others, grew steadily worse, threatening him with bankruptcy, as was the case with Phillip A. Bolling. Edmund Wilcox Hubard corresponded with a number of persons relative to borrowing money and selling his lands in Nelson and Buckingham counties, Virginia. Sarah A. Eppes Hubard made ketchup and vinegar for sale, and her husband sold a number of his books. Their daughter, Susan (Sue) W. Hubard, made efforts toward getting employment, becoming more and more interested in writing for newspapers and magazines.

Edmund Wilcox Hubard corresponded extensively with John D. Imboden, a former Confederate general, who was engaged in the real estate business at Richmond, Virginia, chiefly about the sale of Hubard's properties. Edmund Wilcox Hubard had correspondence with his brother, Robert Thruston Hubard, about financial affairs. This correspondence was carried on after Robert Thruston Hubard's death in 1871 with Robert Thruston Hubard, Jr., an attorney at Farmville, Virginia.

There are scattered references to searches made for natural resources--particularly oil, copper, and black lead--on Edmund Wilcox Hubard's lands.

Edmund Wilcox Hubard continued in his efforts to build a railroad through his community, and there are a large number of letters and other papers relating to this venture. The proposed railroad line was referred to as being between Lynchburg and Richmond in April 1867; as the Buckingham and Farmville Railroad Company, with Edmund Wilcox Hubard elected president, in August 1869; and as the Farmville, Cumberland, and Buckingham Railroad in November 1869. Starting in 1871, there are many references to its being narrow gauge.

There are many papers concerning the settlement of the estate of Martha Burke Jones Eppes, which consisted of property in Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee. Lawsuits connected with the inheritance apparently continued for a number of years.

There are scattered letters from the family of Francis Eppes, half brother of Sarah A. Eppes Hubard, in Florida, telling of family affairs, hard times, and hopes of future success with their citrus fruit trees and bananas.

There are also papers dealing with the Saratoga Home School, including correspondence of the pupils and parents, bills, and similar items. Two letters from Launcelot M. Blackford, 4 April 1866 and 11 July 1870, were written on the subject of the school, and there is an annual report of the school, dated 14 July 1870.

There are several letters that were exchanged between Pocahontas Meredith and her father, W. C. Meredith, mentioning money for Poca's tuition at the Saratoga Home School, and there are later letters from her at Winchester, Virginia, at home, and at school. Apparently W. C. Meredith married a daughter of Philip A. Bolling and Mary Eppes Bolling, who had died sometime before this period. In June 1868, Poca wrote from Winchester of the marriage of her father and also of her older sister.

Mill Brook, the home of the Eppes family, burned on 6 September 1866; there is a list of articles saved from the fire. Eliza Eppes, unmarried Eppes sister of Sarah A. Eppes Hubard, apparently lived for a time at Saratoga with the Hubards after Mill Brook burned. There are a number of letters and other items addressed to her. Mary Eppes Bolling died 22 October 1867, and there are letters concerning her death. Philip Bolling wrote on 30 June 1868, describing with enthusiasm his new home, Glebe, in Amherst County, Virginia, and August 1868, mentioning his second marriage to Anna Tappan.

In August 1866, Edmund Wilcox Hubard was appointed delegate to the Union Party Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which prompted him to petition Congress to lift restrictions imposed under the Fourteenth Amendment that barred him from holding office. He received a letter, dated 23 May 1872, stating that the Amnesty Bill had passed, and restrictions on Hubard were lifted.

John E. Hubard, son of Edmund Wilcox Hubard, studied medicine at the University of Virginia beginning in 1870, and there are letters written by him telling of his life, studies, and social contacts. In a letter dated 5 January 1871, he mentioned making New Year's Day calls on his professors. In 1871, he relocated to Baltimore, Maryland, to finish his medical education. There are letters from him there mentioning his work. During this period, it appears that Edmund W. Hubard, Jr. was still at Saratoga and that Willie J. Hubard, the youngest son, was still in school.

Susan W. Hubard, the only daughter, wrote long and descriptive letters of her visits to various places. On 27 April 1870, she wrote to her father from Richmond to tell him about the floor at the Court of Appeals at the Capitol falling, killing fifty-three and wounding many others. There are letters, one dated February 1872, in which she described another visit to Richmond, and another dated 10 July 1872, describing a stay at White Sulphur Springs. Dated November 1872, there is a letter from Edmund W. Hubard, Jr. at Richmond about a concert by violinist Ole Bull and another written at Covington Academy, Covington, Virginia, where he was teaching school. There are a number of letters dating from this period addressed to and from the young Hubards and their friends, in which they wrote of trips, love affairs, visits here and there, social gatherings, neighborhood news, and gossip.

In May 1871, Edmund Wilcox Hubard received estimates for building a new courthouse for Buckingham County, Virginia, and there is correspondence on this topic for some time, including a letter, dated 4 August 1871, concerning the history of the courthouse.

Among papers from this period are:

1866: In a letter dated 9 March from J. B. Littlejohn at Mansfield, Louisiana, he wrote to "my dear cousin" about his efforts to make a living after losing an arm. He considered a trade, then bootblacking, then tried farming in Texas on a rented place with freedmen, all unsuccessfully. At the time of writing, he had taken up the study of law. In an item dated 26 May, Robert Thruston Hubard wrote about registering slaves owned at the end of the Civil War, in case of future compensation by the U.S. government. There is a letter dated 2 August to Edmund Wilcox Hubard from A. Thornton of New York concerning business affairs and news of Thornton's family.

1867: There is a draft of a letter dated 21 August from Sue Hubard to an author named Miss Evans regarding her recent work named St. Elmo and Sue's own plans, at age sixteen, for a writing career, in which she hoped Miss Evans would take an interest.Throughout this year there are many papers regarding the estate of Martha B. Eppes in North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Correspondence and bills and receipts also document Eliza W. Eppes, who lived with the Hubards. There is extensive documentation of plantation life and labor relations in Buckingham County, Virginia.

1869: There are letters in April from A. Moseley at Richmond to Sue Hubard concerning some articles she had written for The Whig and to Edmund Wilcox Hubard about political conditions. There are letters in September from William Mahone, president of the South Side Railroad, to Edmund Wilcox Hubard about the proposed railroad.

1871: In a letter dated 4 April, Congressman Richard Thomas Walker Duke (1822-1898) wrote about procuring public lands for Virginia; in another dated 19 February 1872, he discussed general financial conditions in the South. Edward M. Alfriend at Richmond and Sue Hubard corresponded at this time about a request from her to take the part of Julia in The Rivals, to be produced by the Dramatic Club of Richmond. There is a letter dated 12 June to Edmund Wilcox Hubard from Horace Greely (1811-1872) of New York discussing the treatment of black laborers.

1872: There is a letter dated 21 June from G. W. Bagby of Richmond inquiring about the bust of Thomas Jefferson that was once at Mill Brook, the Eppes home, that was wanted for the Virginia State Library. There is a letter dated 13 September from Henry A. Wise of Richmond commenting on the times and the men in leadership positions. There is a letter dated 20 November from Gilbert Carlton Walker (1833-1885), representative from Virginia and governor, relating to proposed immigration into Virginia. There is a map of Mecklenburg County, Virginia, printed and published by Endly and Boyd, Christiansville, Virginia, with farms of northern settlers inked in.

Subseries 1.12. 1873-1880 In 1873, Edmund W. Hubard, Jr. wrote to his family from Alleghany County, Virginia, where he taught and served as principal of the Covington Academy. He included in his mail a pencil sketch of the academy building. He told in detail of his life, social contacts, and tentative engagement to Miss McDonald, which was apparently called off. Later in 1873, he moved to Enniscartha, Virginia, and wrote describing his situation
in the household of Tucker S. Coles at Green Mountain, Albemarle County, Virginia, as tutor to his three boys, giving details of the house and the family's manner of living. In 1876, Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr., studying law at the University of Virginia, wrote letters from Charlottesville before returning to Saratoga to practice law. There are a great many letters and papers concerning his law practice in the vicinity of Buckingham County, Virginia.

There are papers dating from this period that concern Edmund Wilcox Hubard's proposed railroad, mostly attempts to discourage him from proceeding with the project. Filed with December 1873 papers, there is a copy of an account, apparently included in Congressional House Documents, of the case of Col. A. B. Steinberger, who was apparently engaged to
Sue Hubard, and his difficulties in Samoa. Dating from January 1874, there are letters about
Col. Steinberger being in the United States and expected at Saratoga, which apparently never happened. There are copies of letters written to him by Sue Hubard (see also undated material) and letters written to her by various persons concerning Steinberger and her engagement to
him, and to government officials asking for information about him and his whereabouts. References to him are scattered through the papers until November 1878, when a letter
from an unidentified writer mentioned that Sue Hubard had broken off her engagement
to Steinberger.

There are letters from A. Thornton in New York, giving family news and also from various members of the Eppes family, in Florida, chiefly addressed to Eliza Eppes, either at Saratoga or at Mill Brook, where she occasionally stayed. Willie J. Hubard apparently lived at home during this period and was engaged in teaching school. Sue Hubard continued to pursue her career as a writer with some success, there being correspondence about copyrights and about her work, including a letter dated 3 December 1874 from Whitelaw Reid of the New York Tribune and one dated January 1875 from Augustin Daly of New York concerning an article and play she had submitted.

In May 1874, Edmund Wilcox Hubard was appointed as a delegate to the Atlanta State Tobacco Convention. In September 1875, he was appointed to represent the Farmer's Council of Virginia at the National Agricultural Congress, Cincinnati, and in November 1875, he was sent by the governor to a national convention at St. Louis, Missouri, for consideration of construction of a Pacific Railroad through the states and territories. Many of the papers for this period relate to these events. Sue Hubard and her brothers took up the investigation of heraldry about this time, and there is a letter dated 17 March 1876 from E. Y. W. Custis of New Bern, North Carolina, with a sketch of a coat of arms taken from a silver tea kettle, supposedly from the Tryon Palace.

In 1876, Sue Hubard visited New York. There is a letter from her there, dated July of that year, in which she mentioned that she had borrowed money from Somerville, a commission merchant in Richmond, using her diamonds as collateral.

There are letters during these years from Pocahontas Bolling Meredith, mentioning her work a school teacher and governess. There are also occasional letters from W. C. Meredith, chiefly about personal and family matters.

Edmund Wilcox Hubard died on 9 December 1878, and there are letters concerning his death and papers about the settlement of his estate. In February 1879, Jane Eppes in Florida wrote to Eliza Eppes concerning his death and told of a spiritual visit from him to her father, Francis Eppes, and other similar experiences on her father's part.

In April 1879, Sue Hubard wrote from Washington, D.C. of her family's poverty, suggesting taking summer boarders at Saratoga, of her brothers' attitudes toward this plan, and of efforts on her part to sell some family-owned violins. In letters dated 23 May, 2 June, and 21 June 1879, she wrote about many persons she had met while visiting in Washington, including William Gates DeLuc (1823-1917, Union officer and U.S. commissioner of agriculture); Senator Matthew Hale Carpenter (1824-1881); Martin L. Clardy (1844-1914, representative from Missouri); and Zebulon Baird Vance (1839-1894, representative and senator, governor of North Carolina), insinuating, as to the last, that he was paying her marked attention.

There is a copy of a notice, dated 1880, sent around to the heirs of Matilda W. Eppes Spooner, stating that she had died in November of that year, leaving an estate that would be divided among her nieces and nephews and recommending that the services of Edmund W. Hubard, Jr. be engaged. There was a great deal of correspondence concerning this matter for some years.

There are a number of letters addressed to members of the Hubard family from relatives or connections, apparently in close touch with those in Buckingham County, Virginia, but whose connections with them are unclear. There are papers related to lawsuits having been instituted regarding some of the property of Martha Burke Jones Eppes in Tennessee and apparently being handled by Tomlin and Tomlin, attorneys, of Jackson, Tennessee.

Among papers from this period are:

1873: Dated February and following, there are letters concerning a visit by Sue Hubard and her brother, John, with Kate Boylan at Raleigh, North Carolina, mentioning the people there. In a letter dated 3 March to Sue Hubard from her mother, Sarah Eppes Hubard, the latter provided notes on family genealogical relationships. In a letter dated 17 July, Philip A. Bolling of Litchfield County, Connecticut, wrote of the industrial development of New England and compared the economics there with the South and its past reliance on slave labor. In another letter dated 24 July, he predicted the future development of the South with industry and smaller plantations instead of the larger ones of the prewar period.

1874: There is a letter dated 19 January from Thomas Whitehead (1824-1901), congressman, Confederate officer, editor of the Lynchburg News and the Lynchburg Advance, concerning taxation of tobacco; and another dated February about finding Col. Steinberger. There is a letter dated 6 March from John Warfield Johnston (1818-1889), senator and state judge, concerning a report from the U.S. Patent Office. There are letters dated May through June from F. F. Fredway relating to the establishment of a grange. Letters dated July through August are addressed to and from Sue and Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. at Greenbrier, White Sulphur Springs, mostly about personal and family matters. In letters dated 29 August and 9 September, Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter, congressman and senator, discussed taxation of tobacco and the change of appointment of one of Edmund Wilcox Hubard's sons to Annapolis or West Point. In another letter dated 30 September 1876, he discussed Hubard's financial affairs.

1875 [-1878]: There is a letter dated 21 February from Morton Craig Hunter (1825-1896), congressman and Union army officer, concerning banking. In a letter dated 30 March, Louisiana Hubard Randolph, daughter of Robert Thruston Hubard and wife of Dr. Randolph of Albemarle County, wrote of her four children and other family news. A note dated 16 April states that Eleanor Gray Page, wife of John C. Page, died at Mill Brook, Virginia. In a letter dated 20 July, John Randolph Tucker (1823-1897) congressman, attorney, and college professor of Lexington, Virginia, wrote to Edmund Wilcox Hubard about Willie J. Hubard entering competitive examinations for West Point. In another letter dated 7 April 1876, he discussed copyrighting an article sold by Sue Hubard to Leslie's Magazine. In a letter dated 30 April 1878, he discussed politics. In a letter dated 6 September 1875, Philip A. Bolling wrote to Eliza Eppes at Mill Brook, Virginia, about the death of his wife, Anna Tappan Bolling; he also mentioned the death of Willie J. Eppes's daughter, Nellie (Eleanor Gray Page).

1876: In a letter dated 22 May, John D. Imboden wrote to Edmund Wilcox Hubard concerning the invention of a railway car and axle and discussed the fate of the narrow gauge railroad.

1877: There is a letter dated 23 May from J. M. Blanton, master, State Grange of Virginia, concerning politics. James L. Kemper (1823-1895), Confederate general and governor of Virginia, wrote a letter of recommendation for Edmund Wilcox Hubard; it is dated 11 January. In letters dated 7 July, 15 September, and 24 September, William Mahone (1826-1895), senator, Confederate general, and railroad president, thanked Hubard for his testimonial; he also discussed state politics and his gubernatorial campaign. There is a letter dated 5 October from David Miller of Bristol, Virginia, concerning an independent ticket in Virginia.

1878: There is a letter dated 31 January from George C. Cabell (1836-1906), congressman and Confederate officer, to Edmund Wilcox Hubard, saying that chances were poor for Hubard, a Southern Democrat, getting an appointment to a federal job. There is a letter dated 1 February to Edmund Wilcox Hubard from Fred W. M. Holliday concerning a recommendation. A letter dated 18 April from Beverly Tucker at Washington, D.C. concerns state and national politics. In a letter dated 30 July, John Randolph Tucker (1823-1897), congressman and educator, discussed the political situation.

Subseries 1.13. 1881-1907, 1930, and 1953 In letters dated January and February 1881, Sue Hubard at Baltimore, Maryland, discussed her approaching marriage to John T. Crow (1822-1881), managing editor of the Baltimore Sun, her trousseau, and similar matters. Following the wedding, she described their temporary quarters at Barnum's Hotel. John T. Crow died in March. There was considerable correspondence concerning his death and, subsequently concerning the settlement of his estate and the languid state of Sue Hubard Crow, who returned to live with her family at Saratoga, Buckingham County, Virginia, where she died around January 1882. (For more Sue Hubard Crow papers, see undated Subseries 1.14.3., described below.)

Many papers in this time period relate to political matters. Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. ran successfully for the office of commonwealth attorney and in 1883, was elected to the state senate. There was criticism of his holding these two offices, and there is correspondence concerning that issue, as well as letters and papers dealing with both of those offices. Willie J. Hubard, youngest of the sons of Edmund Wilcox Hubard, apparently attended the University of Virginia, in company with his cousin, Andrew J. Eppes, son of Willie J. Eppes. Willie Jones Hubard practiced law with his brother, Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr., in the firm of Hubard and Hubard, concerning which practice there are numbers of papers. In June 1885, E. W. Hubard, Jr. was appointed as a delegate to the Republican state convention; in July 1894, he received a letter from James D. Brady expressing regret that Hubard had gone back to the Democratic party. Beginning in 1896, there are letters addressed to Willie J. Hubard, House of Delegates at Richmond, Virginia; in 1902, he wrote from the state treasurer's office at Richmond, where he apparently was serving as auditor.

Dating from this period are letters and papers concerning Lucy P. Moseley, daughter of A. F. Moseley, chiefly about schoolwork and her training as a school teacher. There is also an invitation to her wedding, dated 16 June 1886 and addressed to Dr. John E. Hubard, at the Presbyterian church, Maysville, Virginia. There is mention, in the papers dating from the following years, of Dr. Hubard's ill health, and there are letters dated February 1892 to the Hubard family expressing sympathy on his death. There is a teacher's certificate, dated August 1892, that was issued to Lucy P. Moseley Hubard by the Buckingham Free Schools, and there are letters to and from her scattered through the remainder of the papers, one in particular, dated 18 November 1906, from her at Washington, D.C. to Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr., concerning her children and mentioning E. W. Hubard's son, Dabney Hubard.

References to Sarah A. Eppes Hubard, widow of Edmund Wilcox Hubard, are scarce and then practically disappear around 1896; it may be surmised that she died about that time. Eliza Eppes, her sister, apparently died in 1884. Andrew J. Eppes, son of Willie J. Eppes, was apparently the superintendent of schools in Buckingham County, beginning around 1884, and there is constant mention of him by members of the family at Saratoga, with letters indicating that he made his home there for some time. In December 1903, Willie J. Hubard wrote to his brother, Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr., about the former's approaching wedding to Miss Carrie at Richmond on 11 December 1903.

There are a number of letters from various relatives and connections of the Hubard family dating from this period, some of the writers being unidentified. Among these letters are some written by: Mamie (or Manie) J. Lemmon of Covington, Tennessee, (17 March 1881), apparently a descendent of the Eppes family, and niece of Matilda Eppes Spooner; and from M. B. Savage, Memphis, Tennessee, a cousin (10 March 1881). Both of these writers mentioned their own families and asked about the Spooner estate. W. Littlejohn of Albemarle, Virginia (20 March 1884) gave much family news and many genealogical references. L. Conway at Richmond and Charlottesville, Virginia (February through April 1885) wrote to Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. and Tempe Osborne about family and personal matters. T. J. Shine of Orlando, Florida (16 May 1886) wrote to Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. about funds for Francis Eppes from the Spooner estate; also Jane Eppes at Madison, Florida (15 June 1886); John W. Eppes at Madison, Florida (6 August 1886); and other members of the Francis Eppes family in Florida, discussed mostly family and personal matters.

Pattie Farley and her mother, "Nannie" Farley, at Kanawha Falls, West Virginia (29 August 1886; 21 November 1887; January 1890; January 1892; October 20, 1892; and May 1896) wrote mostly about family matters. Pattie Farley (26 August 1896) also told of her approaching marriage to J. M. Clark, civil and mining engineer, of New Jersey. Nannie Farley mentioned the death of her husband, Tom Farley, in a letter dated 31 July 1903.

There are also letters written by children of Robert Thruston Hubard, including one from Louisiana Hubard Randolph, married to Dr. L. C. Randolph (5 March 1891), telling of her own children and some of the children of her brothers.

Among other correspondents and papers dating from this period:

1881: Letters of January concern plans for the marriage of Sue Hubard and John T. Crow. Following the wedding, in February, letters from Sue's mother and brother discuss their feelings upon her going out into the world. A tribute to John T. Crow is filed with a letter describing the circumstances of his death among papers of March 31. Letters from a Baltimore lawyer regarding Crow's estate, begin in May after Sue's return to Virginia. Farm labor agreements, legal papers, and Buckingham County political matters continue throughout the year, as do bills and receipts concerning Saratoga. Letters to Willie, in August, describe life at Saratoga, Sue's grief, and the financial hardships facing the family.

1882: There are letters of condolence upon the death of Sue Hubard Crow in January. Letters to Lucy Page Moseley, Nashville, Tennessee, begin in May. Farm labor agreements, bills, and receipts continue throughout the year. Legal papers document Buckingham County affairs and continuing efforts to settle the estate of John T. Crow in Baltimore.

1883: Dated 24 January, there is the oath of John E. Hubard, M.D. at Richmond, Virginia, on becoming surgeon for the state penitentiary. Shortly afterwards, a letter to his family showed that Hubard did not like that situation and decided not to stay. There is a letter dated 10 December from Thomas Conrad, president of the Virginia Agricultural & Manufacturing College, congratulating Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. on his election as state senator. Other papers are related to Hubard's election in Buckingham County.

1885: There is a broadside, dated April, entitled "Sketch of John S. Wise, Republican Candidate for Governor of Virginia." There are letters in May from Paul M. Jones at New Store, Virginia, referring to the black vote. In a letter dated 23 June, J. X. Morton at Blacksburg, Virginia, invited Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. to be his guest during a meeting of the Board of Visitors; in another letter, dated 7 April, he wrote of the entire faculty of the Virginia Agricultural & Manufacturing College being removed and having to be reelected; a letter from J. E. Christian, dated 10 April 1885, deals with the same subject.

1887: Following correspondence concerning voting for a railroad, there is a letter, dated 30 July from Robert Thruston Hubard Jr. as president, F. & C. R.R, dealing with financial matters. There is a broadside dated 30 August concerning William Mahone's gubernatorial campaign, signed by him, warning against the tactics of the Democrats. There are papers and letters to Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. from William Mahone concerning political matters, particularly letters dated 13 March and 17 August.

1888: There is a printed notice of a meeting in August of the James River Valley Immigration Society and Natural Bridge. In a letter dated 11 August, William Mahone attempted to persuade Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. to run for Congress on the Republican ticket. September letters to E. W. Hubard, Jr. from Congressman Jacob Yost (1853-1933) concern political affairs.

1889-1891: Letters dated 1889 to 1890 concern arrangements for selling antiques from Saratoga. Letters dated 1890 to 1891 concern the Rosny Iron and Land Company. A notice dated 23 April 1891 concerns proceeds from the sale of the Buckingham Female Collegiate Institute.

1892: A letter dated 15 May from Thomas Staples Martin (1847-1919) concerns his candidacy for the U.S. Senate.

1893: There is a letter dated 10 April to Lucy P. Hubard from J. L. Hubard at Tye Brook, Nelson County, Virginia, giving family news. A letter and circular dated 21 November from Herbert Barbee at Luray, Virginia, solicits funds for a monument to Confederate soldiers. There is a letter dated 3 November from Chincoteague Island, Virginia, to Lucy P. Hubard at Bay View, Virginia, telling about selling ponies on "Ponypenning Day."

1894: There are letters dated August, originally exchanged between members of the Saratoga family, concerning the death of Dr. Osborne. Apparently the Osborne family was closely connected with the Hubards.

1896: There is a letter dated 2 March from Senator Thomas Staples Martin in Washington, D.C., to Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. at Buckingham Court House, Virginia, on various matters, including division of the Democratic Party on free silver. There is more about this question in letters from other persons. There is a letter dated 29 September from T. S. Martin at Scottsville, Virginia, concerning H. D. Flood's political organization in Buckingham County. A letter dated 11 November is from Mrs. Osborne about her affairs, in which she asks about the status of her inheritance from John Wayles Eppes's estate.

1898: There is a letter dated 17 February from B. W. Blanton of the Virginia House of Delegates concerning politics. A letter dated 27 August from Congressman Julian Minor Quarles (1848-1929) concerns his candidacy for Congress.

1902: Congressman Henry de la Warr Flood (1862-1921), in letters dated 7 and 13 June and 5 and 21 September, wrote about personal and political matters to Edmund Wilcox Hubard, Jr. There is a broadside dated 18 August entitled "Resolutions adopted at a full meeting of the Democratic Committee of the tenth Congressional district, held at Clifton Forge, August 18, 1904."

1905: There is a letter dated 3 January from Senator Thomas Staples Martin concerning the contest between Judges Hundley and Watkins and political factions in the state generally. In a letter dated 3 March, Martin wrote about the appointment of Willie J. Eppes as clerk [apparently Clerk of Circuit Court, Buckingham, Virginia] and Martin's need for political backing.

1906: There are letters dated October relating to the erection of a toll bridge between Buckingham and Albemarle counties, Virginia.

1907: There is a letter dated 31 May about procuring a portrait of Grand Master Joseph Montfort of Halifax, North Carolina.

1930: A clipping from a Richmond newspaper, dated 20 August, tells of the sale of Saratoga to Mrs. N. M. Sutton, of Manteo, Virginia.

1953: A typed history of the Hubard (Hubbard) Family of York County, Virginia, by Elizabeth Hawes Ryland, contains genealogical data on James Thruston Hubard and others.

Subseries 1.14: Undated Material Undated materials have been grouped, as far as possible, by family member to which they relate.

Subseries 1.14.3: Sue Hubard Crow Papers, ca. 1860s-1890s. Correspondence and writings of Sue Hubard Crow. Most of the letters are postbellum and relate to family matters. Writings include poems, essays, and stories, most of them about the change of seasons, love, and other general topics.

Series 2. Volumes, 1752-1894 and Undated
Subseries 2.2: 1866-1894 This subseries consists of accountbooks, notebooks, and journals concerning Hubard family agricultural, educational, travel, and political matters; and physician's and lawyer's fee books.

Volume 88, 1866, Edmund Wilcox Hubard, contains miscellaneous accounts.

Volume 89, 1866-1867, Edmund Wilcox Hubard, contains miscellaneous accounts.

Volume 90, 1866-1868, Edmund Wilcox Hubard and J. E. Hubard, is a farm journal.

Volume 91, 1867-1869, Edmund Wilcox Hubard, contains expenses of a trip to Halifax, Memphis, and Jackson, Tennessee, and other places on business of estate of Martha Burke Jones Eppes; other notes.

Volume 92, 1868-1870, Susan Wilcox Hubard, is a notebook with miscellaneous writings.

Volume 93, 1868-1873, Edmund Wilcox Hubard, contains farm accounts.

Volume 94, 1870, Andrew J. Eppes, contains Latin and French exercises at Saratoga.

Volume 95, 1870-1879, Sarah Eppes Hubard, includes an inventory of household articles, taken March 1870, when Mary Gamble left Saratoga; other notes, including an inventory, on departure of Eliza Washington, 4 April 1871, and lists of laundry sent out.

Volume 96, 1872-1878, E. W. Hubard, Jr. and W. J. Hubard, contains notes on McCauley's History of England, 1 October 1872, as well as Saratoga accounts.

Volume 97, 1874-1879, J. E. Hubard, is a physician's register.

Volume 98, 1876-1885, Edmund W. Hubard, Jr., is a scrapbook of newspaper clippings, chiefly political.

Volume 99, 1877-1878, Edmund W. Hubard, Jr., is an attorney's fee book.

Volume 100, 1880-1894, J. E. Hubard, is a physician's fee book.

Volume 101, pre-1865 and 1881-1882, Edmund W. Hubard and Edmund E. Hubard, Jr., includes slave lists, farm accounts, law notes, and accounts of Susan Maury, deceased.

Volume 102, 1882-1883, contains farm notes, with agricultural clippings pasted in.

Series 3. Pictures, 1869 and Undated
This series consists of photographs, cartes-de-visite, a tintype, silhouettes, and sketches. There are portraits of members of the Hubard and Bolling families and unidentified people, and sketches apparently made to accompany poems.

1-5 Black and white prints of portraits of Robert Thruston Hubard, James Thruston Hubard, Sussanah Wilcox Hubard, Linnaeus Bolling, and Susan Pocahontas Bolling.

6 Carte-de-visite of John E. Hubard. An inscription reads: "Miss E. W. Eppes from her affectionate nephew J. E. Hubard, July 10, 1869." Anderson, photographer, Richmond, Virginia.

7 Carte-de-visite of a group: N. L. Berkeley, S. Leigh, J. Leigh, and J. E. Hubard. C. H. Erambert, photographer, Farmville, Virginia.

8 Photograph of a young woman wearing nineteenth century dress and hat. Richard Walze, photographer, Monumental City Palace of Artistic Photography.

9 Tintype of an unidentified girl, Abbott's Art Gallery, Huntington, West Virginia.

10 Three views of a very young, unidentified child.

11-12 Paper silhouettes of an unidentified man and woman.

13 Colored carte-de-visite of a house, possibly Saratoga, Buckingham County, Virginia. C. H. Erambert, photographer, Farmville, Virginia.

14-19 Sketches of ruins and landscapes, mostly European.

20-22 Sketches with accompanying verses, numbered 2-4, concerning three cardplayers, including "Bill Nye" and "that heathen Chinese."

23-25 Sketches with accompanying captions, numbered 2-4, concerning "Adolphe," a tall man with a long moustache and sideburns, possibly meant to illustrate a poem.

A list of omissions from the Hubard Family Papers, 1866-1953, is provided on Reel 30, Frame 0990. Omissions include Subseries 1.1-1.10, Correspondence, Financial/Legal Material, and Other Loose Papers, 1741-1865; Subseries 1.14.1-1.14.2, Correspondence, Financial/Legal Material, and Other Loose Papers, Edmund Hubard and Edmund Wilox Hubard, Undated (predominately antebellum); Subseries 1.14.4-1.14.5, Correspondence, Financial/Legal Material, and Other Loose Papers, Other Family Members and Miscellaneous, Undated (predominately antebellum); Subseries 2.1, Volumes, 1752-1865; and Subseries 2.3-2.4, Volumes, E. W. Hubard Law Notes and Undated.

N.B. Antebellum materials from the Hubard Family Papers are included in UPA's Records of Ante-Bellum Southern Plantations from the Revolution through the Civil War, Series J, Part 10. Related collections include six accessions of Hubard Family Papers at the University of Virginia library. Of the six, three are included in UPA's Records of Ante-Bellum Southern Plantations from the Revolution through the Civil War, Series E, Part 1.

Susanna Gordon Waddell Diary, 1863-1867,
Monroe County, Virginia (now West Virginia)

Description of the Collection
Susanna Gordon was born in Richmond, Virginia, in 1824 and married Dr. James Alexander Waddell in 1844. During the Civil War, she and her husband lived in Union, West Virginia. She kept her diary in two penmanship exercise books; the first volume contains entries from 8 February 1863 to 15 December 1863, and the second contains entries from 16 December 1863 to 4 November 1865. In the second volume, there is also one entry for May 1866 and poems dated 11 June 1866 and 17 March 1867. Also included in both volumes are several undated poems, most apparently by Waddell and a few attributed to other people.

Entries mainly concern daily life in Union and the activities of Susanna Waddell's relatives and friends, including the family of Confederate General John Echols. There is extensive discussion of military activities in the Monroe County area, including Union General William Woods Averell's raid on Lewisburg, West Virginia, 1-8 November 1863; also mentioned are the activities of General Echols and other Union raids led by generals W. W. Averell, David Hunter, and George Crook.

A typed transcription of Volumes 1 and 2 is also included.